Table 3

PRs and 95% CIs of COPD risk spirometry defined as FEV1/FVC<LLN for exposure to current job codified as four-digit SOC code 2000 in the UK Biobank cohort overall (n=228 614), never-smokers (n=129 858) and non-asthmatics (n=203 086)

All participantsNever-smokers Non-asthmatics 
SOC codeOccupationsPRHealthy exposedCases exposedPR95% CIHealthy exposedCases exposedPR95% CI
8217Seafarers; barge, lighter and boat operatives2.64733.901.4310.653093.101.795.36
8122Coal mine operatives2.3080NANANA1353.171.377.34
9132Industrial cleaning process occupations1.961411.000.136.093381.961.063.62
5313Roofers, roof tilers and slaters1.864071.991.003.6695131.530.912.55
9134Packers, bottlers, canners, fillers1.6081121.670.982.84143211.420.952.13
5112Horticultural trades1.554741.070.422.7681121.510.892.59
8111Food, drink and tobacco process operatives1.46135181.571.022.42274331.451.062.00
9233Cleaners, domestics1.439051011.381.151.6615492341.461.291.65
5322Floorers and wall tilers1.4195111.460.792.72149221.561.062.30
8114Chemical and related process operatives1.39104131.510.902.52200201.320.852.04
9211Postal workers, mail sorters, messengers, couriers1.35524581.371.071.758881071.441.191.73
9121Labourers in building and woodworking trades1.32159121.010.591.75342471.451.111.89
9244School mid-day assistants1.32244291.421.012.01322371.340.971.85
9223Kitchen and catering assistants1.30487541.341.041.73775981.371.131.66
  • PRs and 95% CIs for exposure to each four-digit SOC code and COPD risk (defined as FEV1/FVC<LLN) were calculated by using a Poisson model with robust variance adjusted for sex, study centre (22 categories), age (5 years categories) and lifetime smoking exposure (ever, pack-years and years since quitting). In the analyses among never-smokers, no adjustment for smoking exposure was performed. Reference category: current workers not employed in the specific four-digit SOC-coded job tested. Healthy=non-COPD cases.

  • COPPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; LLN, lower limit of normal; NA, not available; PR, prevalence ratio; SOC, Standard Occupational Classification.