Table 1

Participant characteristics and post-9/11 cumulative incidence and prevalence of selected health conditions in the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) emergency medical service study population

Arrival group 1: morning of 9/11/2001Arrival group 2: afternoon of 9/11/2001Arrival group 3: 9/12/2001Arrival group 4: 9/13/2001–9/24/2001Arrival group 5: 9/25/2001 and laterUnexposedTotal
Participants (N)3765762414941764182281
Race (%)
 Non-Hispanic white56.151.053.949.448.343.150.2
Male sex (%)85.981.878.479.476.767.978.7
Smoking status* (%)
Age on 9/11, years, median (IQR)35.9 (29.8–41.5)34.3 (28.0–41.3)36.0 (30.3–41.1)36.2 (30.5–41.4)35.8 (28.2–40.9)38.7 (32.2–45.3)36.2 (29.9–42.1)
Retired† (%)44.734.040.336.442.636.838.1
Post-9/11 cumulative incidence of physical health conditions (%)
  Chronic bronchitis3.
 First post-9/11 cancer diagnosis§
Prevalence of mental health conditions (%)¶,**
 Probable PTSD13.
 Probable depression22.417.222.214.613.411.516.7
 Probable harmful alcohol use3.
  • Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

  • *Smoking status as of the end of the study period, December 31, 2013. One participant with unknown smoking status was coded as a never smoker.

  • †Retired from the FDNY workforce as of the end of the study period, 31 December 2013.

  • ‡Obstructive airways disease (OAD) includes asthma, chronic bronchitis and COPD/emphysema. Participants may have more than one OAD diagnosis.

  • §First primary cancer diagnosis.

  • ¶ 34 participants had unknown mental health results. Percentages of 2247.

  • **Mental health scores taken from participants’ most recent survey.

  • Total population at risk for each physical health outcome: rhinosinusitis: 2272 ; GERD: 2273; OAD: 2245; asthma: 2249; chronic bronchitis: 2277; COPD/emphysema 2281; cancer 2265.

  • GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.