Table 1

Participant characteristics and post-9/11 cumulative incidence and prevalence of selected health conditions in the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) emergency medical service study population

Arrival group 1: morning of 9/11/2001Arrival group 2: afternoon of 9/11/2001Arrival group 3: 9/12/2001Arrival group 4: 9/13/2001–9/24/2001Arrival group 5: 9/25/2001 and laterUnexposedTotal
Participants (N)3765762414941764182281
Demographics
Race (%)
 Non-Hispanic white56.151.053.949.448.343.150.2
 African-American16.819.324.525.327.834.024.1
 Hispanic23.927.120.322.920.519.623.1
 Other3.22.61.22.43.43.42.7
Male sex (%)85.981.878.479.476.767.978.7
Smoking status* (%)
 Current13.816.09.513.212.513.913.7
 Former37.537.938.236.227.836.136.4
 Never48.746.152.350.659.750.049.9
Age on 9/11, years, median (IQR)35.9 (29.8–41.5)34.3 (28.0–41.3)36.0 (30.3–41.1)36.2 (30.5–41.4)35.8 (28.2–40.9)38.7 (32.2–45.3)36.2 (29.9–42.1)
Retired† (%)44.734.040.336.442.636.838.1
Post-9/11 cumulative incidence of physical health conditions (%)
 Rhinosinusitis15.710.511.711.110.84.810.6
 GERD17.413.113.811.911.45.312.1
 OAD‡18.412.39.110.09.99.511.8
  Asthma16.710.97.98.29.37.310.1
  Chronic bronchitis3.52.31.73.01.12.42.5
  COPD/emphysema1.10.42.50.00.60.70.7
 First post-9/11 cancer diagnosis§1.93.54.22.73.43.43.1
Prevalence of mental health conditions (%)¶,**
 Probable PTSD13.88.38.84.15.22.47.0
 Probable depression22.417.222.214.613.411.516.7
 Probable harmful alcohol use3.83.94.21.64.11.53.0
  • Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding.

  • *Smoking status as of the end of the study period, December 31, 2013. One participant with unknown smoking status was coded as a never smoker.

  • †Retired from the FDNY workforce as of the end of the study period, 31 December 2013.

  • ‡Obstructive airways disease (OAD) includes asthma, chronic bronchitis and COPD/emphysema. Participants may have more than one OAD diagnosis.

  • §First primary cancer diagnosis.

  • ¶ 34 participants had unknown mental health results. Percentages of 2247.

  • **Mental health scores taken from participants’ most recent survey.

  • Total population at risk for each physical health outcome: rhinosinusitis: 2272 ; GERD: 2273; OAD: 2245; asthma: 2249; chronic bronchitis: 2277; COPD/emphysema 2281; cancer 2265.

  • GERD, gastroesophageal reflux disease; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder.