Table 1

Association between ESRD and demographic and medical conditions among private and commercial applicators, adjusted for age and state, Agricultural Health Study (1993–1997)

Variable (at enrolment)Non-cases
(N=55 260)
N (%)
ESRD cases
(N=320)
N (%)
HR (95% CI)
State (where enrolled)*
 Iowa35 943 (65.0)134 (41.9)
 North Carolina19 317 (35.0)186 (58.1)2.02 (1.61 to 2.53)
Applicator type*
 Private50 575 (91.5)308 (96.3)
 Commercial4685 (8.5)12 (3.7)0.75 (0.42 to 1.35)
Age category (years)
 18–306306 (11.4)12 (3.8)
 31–4927 380 (49.6)58 (18.1)1.15 (0.62 to 2.15)
 50–6918 924 (34.3)210 (65.6)6.04 (3.38 to 10.81)
 ≥702650 (4.8)40 (12.5)10.04 (5.25 to 19.20)
Race
 Caucasian52 763 (97.3)273 (85.3)
 Other1440 (2.7)47 (14.7)4.42 (3.18 to 6.13)
Education level
 High school or less30 495 (57.6)230 (75.7)
 More than high school22 452 (42.4)74 (24.3)0.65 (0.50 to 0.85)
Number years lived or worked on a farm†
 0–202181 (10.0)10 (7.9)
 21–302928 (13.4)13 (10.2)1.43 (0.62 to 3.28)
 >3016 668 (76.5)104 (81.9)0.90 (0.46 to 1.75)
Number of days per month drink alcohol in the last year
 016 504 (31.9)147 (52.1)
 1–2331 833 (61.5)121 (42.9)0.86 (0.66 to 1.11)
 ≥243447 (6.7)14 (5.0)0.78 (0.45 to 1.36)
Number of pack-years smoked
 None28 059 (53.8)124 (43.5)
 1–1110 956 (21.0)45 (15.8)0.80 (0.57 to 1.13)
 12–308708 (16.7)67 (23.5)1.23 (0.91 to 1.66)
>304464 (8.6)49 (17.2)1.36 (0.97 to 1.91)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 <259658 (25.5)44 (19.8)
 25–29.9919 341 (51.1)108 (48.6)1.26 (0.89 to 1.79)
 ≥308823 (23.3)70 (31.5)2.00 (1.37 to 2.93)
Self-reported doctor diagnosis of
 Diabetes
  No49 616 (97.2)192 (70.1)
  Yes1411 (2.8)82 (29.9)8.78 (6.72 to 11.45)
 High blood pressure†
  No20 081 (83.6)52 (39.4)
  Yes3945 (16.4)80 (60.6)4.66 (3.25 to 6.68)
 Kidney disease (not counting kidney stones)
  No50 935 (99.2)245 (88.4)
  Yes415 (0.8)32 (11.6)10.35 (7.14 to 15.02)
  • *Adjusted for age only.

  • †Reported on the take-home questionnaire only.

  • ESRD, end-stage renal disease.