Table 2

Exposure to known and suspected carcinogens by exposure level, Canada, 2006

CAREX agentHigh exposure (n) (%)Moderate exposure (n) (%)Low exposure (n) (%)Total
Shift work1 900 000 (100%)*1 900 000
Solar radiation896 000 (61%)391 000 (26%)190 000 (13%)1 476 000
Silica (crystalline)53 000 (14%)147 000 (39%)182 000 (48%)382 000
Benzene1400 (<1%)32 000 (9%)341 000 (91%)374 000
Wood dust93 000 (28%)166 000 (49%)79 000 (23%)338 000
Lead60 000 (22%)81 000 (29%)136 000 (49%)277 000
Formaldehyde3700 (2%)46 000 (30%)102 000 (68%)151 000
Ultraviolet radiation (artificial sources)87 000 (62%)34 000 (24%)20 000 (14%)141 000
Nickel8100 (7%)12 000 (10%)97 000 (83%)117 000
Chromium (hexavalent) compounds500 (<1%)13 000 (12%)90 000 (87%)104 000
Styrene38 000 (43%)28 000 (32%)23 000 (26%)89 000
Ionising radiation†<10010 000–18 00026 000–60 00036 000–78 000
Antineoplastic agents5000 (9%)40 000 (70%)13 000 (21%)58 000
Cobalt1800 (6%)9500 (29%)21 000 (65%)33 000
Cadmium2200 (7%)21 000 (66%)8300 (27%)31 000
Dichloromethane (methylene chloride)3400 (13%)8300 (33%)14 000 (54%)25 000
Tetrachloroethylene700 (5%)2200 (15%)12 000 (80%)15 000
Trichloroethylene300 (3%)5400 (55%)4100 (42%)9800
  • *Only those working regular night and rotating night shifts are reported as exposed.

  • †Results presented as a range due to the assumption that fewer workers are monitored for ionising radiation exposure than are actually exposed; see methods section for more details.