Table 1

Baseline demographics of the study population

ParameterAll
N=4819
None-to-mild OPA
N=1870
Moderate-to-hard-OPA
N=2949
p Value*
Age, years42.1±12.141.7±11.742.3±12.30.088
Persons/room1.4±0.71.2±0.61.5±0.8<0.001
Father’s origin<0.001
 Africa1328 (27.0)384 (20.6)927 (31.5)
 Asia747 (15.2)283 (15.2)449 (15.3)
 Europe2171 (44.1)1056 (56.7)1030 (35.0)
 Yemen43 (0.9)18 (1.0)23 (1.0)
 Israel638 (13.0)122 (6.6)514 (17.5)
Education (years)<0.001
 <122962 (60.0)708 (37.9)2178 (73.9)
 121101 (22.31)476 (25.5)603 (20.5)
 >12873 (17.69)686 (36.7)166 (5.6)
BMI (kg/m2)25.7±3.725.6±3.525.7±3.80.449
Cholesterol (mg/dL)201.3±42.0202.3±42.0199.7±41.90.044
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)42.6±10.842.7±10.742.5±10.80.632
Hypertension523 (10.7)217 (11.7)264 (9.0)0.003
Diabetes177 (3.6)55 (3.0)105 (3.6)0.245
Current smoking1940 (39.3)663 (35.5)1243 (42.2)<0.001
Alcohol ≥3 times/week474 (9.8)142 (8.0)321 (11.0)0.006
Coffee cups ≥3/day1658 (33.5)749 (40.1)873 (29.6)<0.001
Maintain special diet†473 (9.6)197 (10.6)232 (7.9)0.002
Blue collar3858 (78.3)941 (50.4)2837 (96.2)<0.001
Body position at work<0.001
 Sitting1163 (23.6)936 (50.1)189 (6.4)
 Standing2720 (55.2)526 (28.1)2145 (72.7)
 Walking/climbing1048 (21.3)407 (21.8)615 (20.9)
Job scope0.020
 Full-time job4761 (98.8)1844 (98.6)2927 (99.3)
 Other57 (1.2)26 (1.4)21 (0.7)
Years in job9.2±8.27.9±7.79.9±8.4<0.001
Shift Work<0.001
 Day only2964 (60.1)1192 (63.7)1681 (57.0)
 Day+extra hours913 (18.5)489 (26.2)406 (13.8)
 Other1056 (21.4)189 (10.1)862 (29.2)
Current LTPA1213 (24.6)558 (29.9)625 (21.3)<0.001
  • Categorical values are displayed as N (%) and continuous variables are displayed as mean±SD.

  • *p Value by t test for continuous variables and by χ2 test for categorical values.

  • †Vegetarian/vegan, diabetic, low-sodium, low-fat or low-calorie.

  • BMI, body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoproteins; LTPA, leisure time physical activity; OPA, occupational physical activity.