Table 1

Overview of the studies included (alphabetical order)

Authors, year of publicationStudy designSampleHealth measures
Overall sample sizeNumber of respondents*Response rateCountryService statusDeployment
Abeyasinghe et al, 2012Cross-sectional surveyNot reported9688.9%Sri LankaActive dutySri Lankan Civil War1. PTSD screening questionnaire†
Abrams et al, 2006CohortNot reportedTotal: 493
123 with hearing impairment
370 controls
Not reportedUSNot reportedNot reported1.  ICD-9-CM
2.  SF (8-item)
3. IADLs
Boakye et al, 2013Analysis of recordsNA168NAUSVeteransNot reported1.  Self-reported depression, PTSD, substance abuse
2.  BDI
3. SF (12 item)
Delimar et al, 1998 Sivik et al, 2000Case–controlNot reportedTotal: 90
(30 disabling injuries; 30 non-disabling injuries; 30 active soldiers)
Total: 120
(30 non-disabling injuries; 30 permanent disabling injuries; 30 active soldiers; 30 recruits not exposed to combat)
Not reportedCroatiaVeterans
Active duty
≥3 months combat experience‡
Croat-Bosniak War1.  CIDI-PTSD interview
2.  MMPI (4 subscales)
3.  PTSS
4. IES
Desmond et al, 2006, Desmond 2007Cross-sectional survey2500 questionnaires distributed
1222 returned
49%UKNot reportedMajority World War II1.  HADS
2.  IES
3.  CSI
Doukas et al, 2013Cross-sectional survey86832459.8%USActive duty
1.  CESD-R
2. PCL-M
Ebrahimzadeh et al, 2009Cross-sectional survey20031Not reportedIranActive dutyIraq–Iran War1. self-reported mental health disorders
Fagelson et al, 2007Analysis of recordsNA300NAUSNot reportedNot reported1.  Clinical Diagnosis DSMI-IV
2.  M-PTSD
3.  THI
4.  TSI
Gregurek et al, 1996Cross-sectional survey6053Not reportedCroatiaActive dutyCroatian War of Independence1.  Clinical interview PTSD
2.  M-PTSD
Gunawardena et al, 2007Case–controlNot reportedTotal 922: 461 amputee soldiers
461 non-amputee controls
98.3% amputee soldiers; 97.6% non-amputees controlsSri LankaActive dutyNot reported1.  GHQ-30
2.  BSI
Hume et al, 1994Case–controlNot reportedTotal 133: 72 war-wounded (ex-)service personnel
10 severely disabled ex-Contra- guerrillas¶
51 non-war-wounded (ex-)service personnel
Not reportedNicaraguaActive dutyContra War Nicaragua1.  GHQ-28
2. Clinical assessment PTSD
Kasturiaratchi et al, 2004Cross-sectional survey430408Not reportedSri LankaActive dutyNot reported1.  GHQ-30
2.  BSI
3. self-reported alcohol consumption
Kim et al, 2006Case–control135Total 132: 56 LDH conscripts (of which 49 complete data)
76 healthy conscripts
Not reportedKoreaNANot reported1.  VAS
2.  BDI
3.  STAI
4.  MINI5. 
5. mOSW
Martz et al, 2001Analysis of records/Case–controlNA45 320NAUSVeteransNot reported1.  PTSD clinical diagnosis
2. ICD-9 Codes
Melcer et al, 2010, Melcer et al, 2013Analysis of recordsNA382
NAUSActive dutyIraq
1. ICD-9 Codes
Radnitz et al, 1998, Radnitz et al, 1998Case–control181Total: 140
97 veterans with spinal cord injuries (of which 45 paraplegic and 52 quadriplegic)
43 veterans with non-spinal cord injuries
Not reportedUSVeteransNot reported1.  CAPS
2.  SCID
3.  IES
4.  MMSE
Reiber et al, 2010, Epstein et al, 2010, Dougherty et al, 2011
Dougherty et al, 2012, Katon et al, 2013
Cross-sectional survey1042 identified
940 contacted
65.1% Vietnam war veterans;
58.7% OIF/OEF veterans
61.8% overall
USActive duty
Vietnam War
1.  SF-36
2.  QOL
3.  self-reported mental health disorders
4.  OPUS
5. PEQ
  • *For all the studies the overall number of participants has been reported. In a few cases also the number of participants per specific impairment type has been described.

  • †Based on the Impact of Event Scale and PTSD symptom Scale.

  • ‡Not professional trained soldiers but had joined the war by spontaneously defending their homes.

  • §Subsample of the Desmond and MacLachlan46 studies. Only selected participants with an upper-limb amputation.

  • ¶Ex-contra guerrillas refer to soldiers who fought against the Nicaraguan government (and their government soldiers).

  • **Study population from Melcer et al29 combined with a group of soldiers with serious extremity injuries without amputation.

  • ††Reporting on the same study sample or only reporting on a subsample.

  • ‡‡Reporting on the OIF/OEF subsample from Reiber et al.20

  • BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BSI, Bradford Somatic Inventory; CAGE, Screening Test for Alcohol Dependence (CAGE); CAPS, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale; CESD-R, Revised Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CIDI-PTSD, Composite International Diagnostic Interview—PTSD; CSI, coping strategy indicator; DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; IADLs, instrumental activities of daily living; ICD, International Classification of Disease Codes; ICD-9-CM, International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes; IES, Impact of Event Scale; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; LDH, lumbar disc herniation; MINI, Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; MMPI, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Hypochondriasis, Depression, Hysteria, Alexithymia); mOSW, Modified Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination;M-PTSD, Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related PTSD; NA, not applicable; OIF, Operation Iraqi Freedom; OEF, operation enduring freedom; OPUS, Orthotic and Prosthetic User's Survey; PEQ, Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; PCL, PTSD Checklist Military version; PTSS, Post-Traumatic Symptom Scale; QOL, single item measure of Quality of Life; SCI, spinal cord injury; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R; SF, Short-Form Health Survey; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; TAPES, Trinity Amputation and Prosthesis Experience Scales; THI, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; TSI, Tinnitus Severity Index; TSRS, Trauma Severity Rating Scale; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale (pain).