Table 1

Association of maternal and infant factors with small for gestational age (SGA) offspring among National Birth Defects Prevention Study controls, 1997–2002

Characteristicn%n%p Value*
Age (years)
 White non-Hispanic14163.8169065.50.14
 Black non-Hispanic198.633412.9
Education (years)
Parity / number of previous live births
Infant sex
Cigarette smoking†
Secondhand smoking at home†
Secondhand smoking at work†
Alcohol drinking†
Prepregnancy body mass index
 Normal weight13663.8143756.7
Folate antagonist medication†
Folic acid supplements†
Household income ($)
 <20 0006232.357325.30.47
 20 000–49 9996634.480535.6
 50 000+6433.388639.1
Study centre
 New Jersey3415.434713.4
 New York229.929711.5
  • *Probability calculated with χ2 test based on non-missing values.

  • †Maternal exposure during the period from 1 month before conception through delivery.

  • ‡Fisher's exact test.