Table 3

Associations between occupational exposures and level of FEV1/FVC (%) in the LifeLines cohort

LifeLinesFEV1/FVC (%)
AllNever smokersEver smokersMenWomen
Exposure†b (95% CI)N (%)b (95% CI)Nb (95% CI)Nb (95% CI)Nb (95% CI)N
VGDF
 Non-exposedRef6534 (55)Ref2910Ref3624Ref2580Ref3954
 Low−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1)**3985 (34)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.3)1633−0.5 (−0.9 to −0.2)**2352−0.5 (−0.9 to 0)1167−0.3 (−0.6 to 0)2818
 High−0.7 (−1.2 to −0.3)**1332 (11)−0.6 (−1.3 to 0.1)548−0.8 (−1.4 to −0.2)**784−0.8 (−1.3 to −0.2)**1131−0.7 (−1.9 to 0.5)201
Gases/fumes
 Non-exposedRef7007 (59)Ref3154Ref3853Ref2702Ref4305
 Low−0.4 (−0.6 to −0.1)**4159 (35)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.2)1692−0.5 (−0.9 to −0.2)**2467−0.4 (−0.9 to 0)1566−0.3 (−0.6 to 0)*2593
 High−0.7 (−1.3 to −0.2)**685 (6)−0.6 (−1.4 to 0.3)245−0.8 (−1.6 to −0.1)*440−0.8 (−1.4 to −0.1)*610−0.6 (−2.1 to 0.8)75
Mineral dust
 Non-exposedRef9389 (79)Ref4121Ref5268Ref3366Ref6023
 Low−0.4 (−0.8 to −0.1)*1924 (16)−0.4 (−0.9 to 0.1)754−0.5 (−1.0 to −0.1)*1170−0.6 (−1.1 to −0.1)*1037−0.2 (−0.7 to 0.2)887
 High−0.1 (−0.8 to 0.5)538 (5)−0.3 (−1.3 to 0.7)216−0.1 (−0.9 to 0.8)322−0.4 (−1.1 to 0.4)4751.2 (−0.7 to 3.2)63
Biological dust
 Non-exposedRef8127 (69)Ref3514Ref4613Ref3729Ref4398
 Low−0.1 (−0.4 to 0.2)3256 (28)0.1 (−0.3 to 0.5)1355−0.2 (−0.6 to 0.1)19010.4 (−0.2 to 1.0)783 ‡−0.3 (−0.6 to 0)2473
 High−0.2 (−0.9 to 0.5)468 (4)−0.3 (−1.3 to 0.7)222−0.1 (−1.1 to 0.9)246−0.2 (−1.0 to 0.7)3660.6 (−1.1 to 2.4)102
All pesticides
 Non-exposedRef11 369 (96)Ref4844Ref6525Ref4523Ref6846
 Low−0.4 (−1.1 to 0.3)370 (3)−0.5 (−1.5 to 0.5)192−0.3 (−1.4 to 0.7)178−0.3 (−1.3 to 0.6)264−0.5 (−1.7 to 0.8)106
 High−1.1 (−2.3 to 0.2)112 (1)−0.7 (−2.4 to 1.0)55−1.4 (−3.3 to 0.4)57−0.7 (−2.2 to 0.8)91−2.5 (−5.2 to 0.2)21
Herbicides
 Non-exposedRef11 680 (99)Ref5008Ref6672Ref4746Ref6934
 Low−0.3 (−1.5 to 0.8)132 (1)0.3 (−1.3 to 1.8)64−0.9 (−2.6 to 0.8)680 (−1.4 to 1.4)104−1.5 (−3.8 to 0.9)28
 High−2.8 (−4.8 to −0.7)**39 (0.3)−2.7 (−5.5 to 0.1)19−2.7 (−5.7 to 0.3)20−2.9 (−5.5 to −0.3)*28−2.4 (−6.1 to 1.4)11
Insecticides
 Non-exposedRef11 425 (96)Ref4870Ref6555Ref4576Ref6849
 Low−0.4 (−1.2 to 0.3)315 (3)−0.5 (−1.6 to 0.5)166−0.4 (−1.6 to 0.8)149−0.4 (−1.4 to 0.6)212−0.5 (−1.8 to 0.8)103
 High−1.1 (−2.3 to 0.2)111 (1)−0.7 (−2.4 to 1.0)55−1.5 (−3.3 to 0.4)56−0.7 (−2.2 to 0.8)90−2.5 (−5.2 to 0.2)21
  • Statistically significant associations are depicted in bold.

  • Associations between occupational exposures and level of FEV1/FVC (%) using linear regression with adjustment for sex, age, height, weight, current, ex-smoking and (log) packyears smoked in the LifeLines cohort study. The analyses with VGDF, gases, fumes, mineral dust and biological dust were additionally adjusted for pesticide exposure, whereas the analyses with pesticides, herbicides and insecticides were additionally adjusted for VGDF exposure. Stratification according to smoking status (never/ever) and gender is shown.

  • *p<0.05.

  • **p<0.01.

  • ***p<0.001.

  • †Occupational exposures (no/low/high) were estimated based on job title and function using the ALOHA+job exposure matrix. Non-exposed subjects were assigned as reference category (Ref).

  • ‡Significantly different for men and women (ie, p value for interaction <0.05).

  • VGDF, vapours, gases, dust and fumes.