Table 2

Prevalence of pesticide, herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, and endotoxin exposure and their correlations

Exposed cases
n (%)
Exposed controls
n (%)
Correlation*
insecticides
Correlation* herbicidesCorrelation*
fungicides
Correlation*
endotoxin
JEM approach†
Cumulative exposure
 All pesticides86 (19.3)167 (19.1)0.860.820.850.60
 Insecticides67 (15.1)123 (14.0)0.830.760.53
 Herbicides60 (13.5)109 (12.4)0.830.730.49
 Fungicides68 (15.3)130 (14.8)0.760.730.47
 Endotoxin169 (38.1)365 (41.7)0.530.490.47
Exposure algorithm‡
Cumulative exposure
 Insecticides58 (13.1)108 (12.3)0.870.70
 Herbicides58 (13.1)106 (12.1)0.870.66
 Fungicides32 (7.2)57 (6.5)0.700.66
  • *Spearman correlation coefficient.

  • †Cumulative exposures were estimated by multiplying the job-exposure matrix (JEM) assigned exposures (0 for no, 1 for low and 4 for high exposure) with years worked in a job, summed across all jobs of a participant's occupational history from 1955. The JEM score was set to 0 for exposure to pesticides, insecticides, herbicides or fungicides if the participant reported that those were not applied.

  • ‡Cumulative exposures were estimated by multiplying the exposure algorithm assigned exposure from pesticide application and re-entry work with all years worked in a job, summed across all jobs of a participant's occupational history from 1955.