Table 1

Summary of associations between health measures and exit routes from paid employment as presented in the studies included in this systematic review

Disability pensionUnemploymentEarly retirement
No. of studies*Range (RR/OR/HR)No. of studies*Range (RR/OR/HR)No. of studies*Range (RR/OR/HR)
Self-perceived health
▸ All studies together131.30–7.38140.94–2.1561.17–1.55
▸ Studies with significant associations131.30–7.8391.14–2.1541.20–1.55
▸ Studies without significant associations050.94–1.4921.17–1.20
Mental health
▸ All studies together290.49–7.56150.77–4.800
▸ Studies with significant associations181.40–7.56101.57–4.80
▸ Studies without significant associations110.49–2.2350.77–1.10
Chronic disease
▸ All studies together421.13–5.62250.90–2.20220.61–3.46
▸ Studies with significant associations351.32–5.6241.35–2.1161.21–3.46
▸ Studies without significant associations71.13–1.60210.90–2.20160.61–1.56
▸ All studies together251.14–4.6490.9–2.2040.90–1.76
▸ Studies with significant associations231.50–4.64011.76
▸ Studies without significant associations21.14–1.6090.9–2.2030.91–1.56
▸ All studies together51.80–3.92070.82–3.46
▸ Studies with significant associations41.80–3.9213.46
▸ Studies without significant associations11.1460.82–1.17
▸ All studies together121.13–5.62160.84–2.11110.87–1.47
▸ Studies with significant associations81.32–5.6241.35–2.1141.21–1.47
▸ Studies without significant associations41.13–1.53120.84–1.5270.87–1.42
  • *Total number of studies within a category heading does not necessarily equal the number of studies included because some studies provide more than one association.

  • MSD, musculoskeletal disorder.