Table 4

Summary of black smoke (BS)–mortality associations per 10 μg m−3 increment BS in Renfrew/Paisley (present study), NLCS-Air7 and PAARC5 cohort studies, and small-area ecological study in Great Britain27.

StudyAll-causeCardiovascularRespiratoryLung cancer
Renfrew/Paisley cohort*1.10 (1.04–1.17)1.11 (1.01–1.22)1.26 (1.02–1.55)1.00 (0.84–1.20)
Renfrew/Paisley cohort+Dep†1.08 (1.02–1.15)1.10 (1.00–1.22)1.30 (1.04–1.63)0.99 (0.81–1.21)
NLCS-Air cohort‡1.05 (1.00–1.11)1.04 (0.95–1.13)1.22 (0.99–1.50)1.03 (0.88–1.20)
PAARC cohort§1.07 (1.03–1.10)1.05 (0.98–1.12)§1.05 (0.98–1.12)§1.03 (0.92–1.15)
GB small area¶1.019 (1.018–1.021)1.020 (1.017–1.022)1.030 (1.026–1.034)1.026 (1.021–1.032)
GB small area+ Dep + U/R**1.007 (1.006–1.009)1.007 (1.004–1.009)1.019 (1.015–1.023)1.006 (1.000–1.012)
  • *BS–mortality association in Renfrew/Paisley cohort observed in present study, with adjustment for individual-level risk factors, including social class.

  • †As for * with adjustment for individual-level risk factors including social class and additional adjustment area-level deprivation.

  • ‡BS–mortality association in Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer (NLCS-Air) cohort in The Netherlands, including adjustment for area-level socio-economic status.7

  • §BS–mortality association in PAARC (Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques/Air pollution and chronic respiratory diseases) cohort in France.5 Cardiovascular and respiratory BS–mortality associations are not reported separately for PAARC cohort. Therefore, the reported BS–‘cardiopulmonary’ association has been replicated in third and fourth columns of the above table.

  • ¶BS–mortality association (for 0–8 year exposure window) in small-area ecological study across electoral wards in Great Britain (GB).27

  • **As for ¶ with additional adjustment for area-level deprivation and urban/rural classification.27