Table 2

Risk of ulnar neuropathy, study 1, and ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms, study 2, in relation to occupational biomechanical exposures

Study 1: ulnar neuropathyStudy 2: ulnar neuropathy-like symptoms
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Partly adjusted OR* (95% CI)Fully adjusted OR† (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Partly adjusted OR* (95% CI)Fully adjusted OR† (95% CI)
Force-score
 0 points1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 >0–<1 point2.13 (1.30 to 3.49)1.87 (1.10 to 3.18)2.73 (1.42 to 5.25)1.05 (0.73 to 1.52)1.03 (0.70 to 1.51)0.79 (0.48 to 1.29)
 ≥1 point3.73 (2.38 to 5.83)3.32 (2.07 to 5.33)3.85 (2.04 to 7.24)1.99 (1.38 to 2.85)1.67 (1.13 to 2.46)1.02 (0.61 to 1.69)
Trend‡1.92 (1.54 to 2.40)1.82 (1.44 to 2.30)1.81 (1.35 to 2.43)1.40 (1.17 to 1.68)1.28 (1.06 to 1.56)1.09 (0.85 to 1.39)
Repetition-time
 0 h/day1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 >0–<2.5 h/day0.92 (0.57 to 1.47)0.85 (051 to 1.41)0.47 (0.25 to 0.90)1.32 (0.91 to 1.93)1.35 (0.91 to 2.00)1.33 (0.82 to 2.14)
 ≥2.5 h/day2.41 (1.58 to 3.68)2.22 (1.41 to 3.51)0.94 (0.43 to 2.06)2.27 (1.56 to 3.32)2.03 (1.35 to 3.03)1.89 (1.01 to 3.52)
Trend‡1.49 (1.21 to 1.84)1.43 (1.14 to 1.79)0.91 (0.63 to 1.29)1.48 (1.23 to 1.78)1.41 (1.16 to 1.72)1.26 (0.95 to 1.67)
Nonneutral-posture-time
 <1 h/day1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 ≥1–<2 h/day1.51 (0.99 to 2.29)1.29 (0.82 to 2.02)0.94 (0.54 to 1.63)1.90 (1.31 to 2.74)2.00 (1.35 to 2.96)1.65 (1.08 to 2.50)
 ≥2 h/day2.02 (1.32 to 3.10)1.82 (1.15 to 2.89)1.06 (0.53 to 2.12)1.57 (1.10 to 2.23)1.48 (1.02 to 2.15)0.97 (0.59 to 1.60)
Trend‡1.42 (1.15 to 1.76)1.35 (1.07 to 1.70)1.08 (0.78 to 1.49)1.29 (1.08 to 1.53)1.25 (1.04 to 1.50)1.10 (0.71 to 1.65)
HAV-time
 0 h/day1.001.001.001.001.001.00
 >0–<1 h/day1.86 (0.94 to 3.65)1.97 (0.95 to 4.10)1.05 (0.45 to 2.47)2.43 (1.00 to 5.90)2.22 (0.88 to 5.56)1.19 (0.44 to 3.21)
 ≥1 h/day1.65 (0.83 to 3.27)2.19 (1.05 to 4.56)1.07 (0.44 to 2.60)2.35 (1.12 to 4.93)1.88 (0.85 to 4.16)1.32 (0.54 to 3.20)
Trend‡1.37 (1.00 to 1.88)1.56 (1.11 to 2.19)1.15 (0.76 to 1.74)1.61 (1.13 to 2.31)1.46 (1.00 to 2.13)1.08 (0.71 to 1.65)
  • In each study, cases and referents were individually matched on sex, age (±2.5 years) and primary healthcare provider. Significant results are displayed in italics. HAV, hand–arm vibration.

  • *Adjusted for body mass index (continuous), pack-years of smoking (continuous), alcohol consumption (continuous), side-specific fractures (never/ever), full anaesthesia within a 5-year period up to the index year (no/yes), predisposing disorders (no/yes), use of crutches within a 5-year period up to the index year (no/yes), hand–arm intensive sports (0, 1, 2) and weight loss ≥10 kg within half a year during a 5-year period up to the index year (no/yes).

  • †Adjusted for the same variables as the partly adjusted ORs and all occupational biomechanical exposure variables seen in the table.

  • ‡Trend analyses for an increment of one exposure category.