Table 4

Multiple logistic regression analyses: LBP intensity at 3-year follow-up regressed on changes in work-related psychosocial and mechanical factors from baseline to follow-up

Mod#1†Mod#2‡
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
1. Job demand
 Constant low1.001.00
 Decreased1.18 (0.91 to 1.51)1.29 (1.00 to 1.66)
 Constant middle0.97 (0.74 to 1.29)1.12 (0.84 to 1.49)
 Increased1.30 (0.98 to 1.72)1.42 (1.07 to 1.89)
 Constant high1.34 (1.05 to 1.71)1.63 (1.26 to 2.10)
2. Job control
 Constant high1.001.00
 Increased1.16 (0.89 to 1.51)1.13 (0.86 to 1.47)
 Constant middle1.14 (0.92 to 1.40)1.09 (0.88 to 1.35)
 Decreased1.27 (0.94 to 1.72)1.13 (0.83 to 1.54)
 Constant low1.50 (1.09 to 2.06)1.26 (0.91 to 1.75)
3. Supportive leadership
 Constant high1.001.00
 Increased1.08 (0.86 to 1.37)1.02 (0.81 to 1.29)
 Constant middle1.07 (0.88 to 1.31)1.01 (0.83 to 1.24)
 Decreased1.39 (1.05 to 1.85)1.26 (0.94 to 1.68)
 Constant low1.45 (0.89 to 2.36)1.30 (0.80 to 2.12)
4. Role conflict
 Constant low1.001.00
 Decreased0.80 (0.62 to 1.00)0.83 (0.64 to 1.01)
 Constant middle1.01 (0.82 to 1.33)1.14 (0.88 to 1.35)
 Increased1.67 (1.17 to 2.39)1.83 (1.27 to 2.62)
 Constant high1.99 (1.29 to 3.06)2.16 (1.39 to 3.36)
5. Monotonous work
 Constant low1.001.00
 Decreased1.31 (1.03 to 1.66)1.21 (0.95 to 1.54)
 Constant middle1.24 (0.98 to 1.57)1.16 (0.91 to 1.48)
 Increased1.40 (1.10 to 1.78)1.26 (0.98 to 1.61)
 Constant high1.50 (1.22 to 1.84)1.23 (0.99 to 1.54)
6. Awkward lifting
 Not exposed1.001.00
 Decreased1.29 (0.98 to 1.70)1.17 (0.88 to 1.56)
 Increased1.53 (1.15 to 2.04)1.34 (1.00 to 1.81)
 Exposed at T1 and T2§2.18 (1.74 to 2.72)1.96 (1.53 to 0.251)
7. Squatting/kneeling
 Not exposed1.001.06.8
 Decreased1.29 (0.98 to 1.71)0.94 (0.68 to 1.30)
 Increased1.54 (1.15 to 2.05)1.14 (0.82 to 1.58)
 Exposed at T1 and T2§2.17 (1.74 to 2.72)1.41 (1.03 to 1.93)
8. Standing
 Not exposed1.001.00
 Decreased1.55 (1.23 to 1.95)1.38 (1.08 to 1.77)
 Increased1.33 (0.94 to 1.87)1.17 (0.82 to 1.66)
 Exposed at T1 and T2§1.65 (1.39 to 1.95)1.41 (1.14 to 1.73)
9. Upper body forward bend
 Not exposed1.001.006
 Decreased1.22 (0.86 to 1.73)0.91 (0.63 to 1.32)
 Increased1.61 (1.09 to 2.38)1.18 (0.77 to 1.80)
 Exposed at T1 and T2§1.37 (0.90 to 2.09)0.86 (0.54 to 1.36)
10. Heavy lifting
 Not exposed1.001.006
 Decreased1.06 (0.81 to 1.39)0.80 (0.60 to 1.07)
 Increased1.37 (1.05 to 1.80)1.09 (0.83 to 1.45)
 Exposed at T1 and T2§1.71 (1.38 to 2.10)1.16 (0.91 to 1.48)
11. Lifting of persons
 Not exposed1.001.00
 Decreased1.18 (0.80 to 1.74)1.16 (0.75 to 1.79)6.8.10
 Increased1.48 (0.96 to 2.26)1.26 (0.79 to 2.01)
 Exposed at T1 and T2§1.38 (1.002 to 1.86)1.01 (0.69 to 1.47)
12. Whole body vibration
 Not exposed1.001.00
 Decreased1.65 (1.05 to 2.60)1.40 (0.88 to 2.24)
 Increased2.42 (1.64 to 3.55)1.98 (1.33 to 2.96)
 Exposed at T1 and T2§1.74 (1.00 to 3.03)1.46 (0.83 to 2.58)
  • *p≤0.05; **p≤0.01; ***p≤0.001.

  • †Adjusted for LBP at T1, gender, age.

  • ‡+Education, occupation, psychological distress and work-related mechanical and/or psychosocial exposures yielding a 10% change of OR (shown in superscript after the reference value in mod#2).

  • §Exposed at baseline and at follow-up.

  • LBP, low back pain.