Table 4

Overview over the shift schedules for the high quality studies

StudyQuality scoreExposure shift workersContinuity (including/excluding weekends)RotationShift work experienceExposure day workers
Prospective cohort studies
 Tüchsen et al 35 67%
  1. Fixed evening

  2. Fixed night

  3. Rotating shifts: intermittent day/evening, intermittent evening/night, intermittent day/evening/night.

    Evening work usually between 14:00–23:00 h

Not givenFixed and rotating (speed/direction not given)Not givenDay work
 Tüchsen et al 36 67%Irregular working hours: 2-shift system, fixed evening shifts, 3-shift system and fixed nightsNot givenFixed and rotating
  • Not given

  • Average person years at risk:

  • men: 1.32 person years;

  • women: 1.28 person years

Permanent day work
Case-control studies
 Kleiven et al 38 76%3-Shift system: slowly rotating between day/evening/nightNot given
  • Rotating (speed/direction not given)

  • Not given

  • Duration of work in company:

  • cases: median 11.9 years; IQR19.9 years

Day work
 Bourbonnais et al 39 59%‘Evening, night, shift’: assumed fixed evening, fixed night and rotating shift schedulesNot givenFixed and rotating (speed/direction not given)
  • Not given

  • M ± SD seniority in hospital:

  • cases: 10.9±5.0 years;

  • Controls 10.3±5.0 years

  • (p=0.097)

  • M ± SD seniority last position:

  • cases: 45.3±42.1 months; controls: 43.6±42.5 months (p=0.601)

Day work
Cross-sectional studies
 Higashi et al 40 67%3-Shift system: rotated between starting times: 06:00, 14:00 and 22:00 hContinuousRotating (speed/direction not given)Not givenNot given
 Niedhammer et al 41 62%
  1. Shift work without nights

  2. Night work

  3. Shift work including nights

Not givenFixed and rotating (speed/direction not given)Not givenDay work
 Böckerman and Laukkanen42 54%Shift and period work as one group (definition used: hours worked not limited to the usual daily/weekly hours)Not givenNot givenNot givenNon-shift and non-period workers
 Ohayon et al 43 54%
  1. 2-Shift system: rotated mainly between morning/evening shifts (6:30–14:30 h/13:30–21:30 h)

  2. Fixed/rotating night: either fixed night time or rotating between day/evening/night

Not givenFixed and rotating (speed/direction not given)Not givenDaytime (08:00–09:00 h to 16:00–17:00 h)
 Eyal et al 44 54%Shift workNot givenNot given
  • Not given

  • M ± SD seniority total population: 12.5±1.5 years

Day work: white collar workers