Table 1

Construction of sum indices for impairment and A&P restrictions

ConstructVariableMeasurementCoding for ‘yes’PCA*CFA†
ImpairmentSymptoms loadTwo or more symptoms10.161
Problems with bitingUnable to bite on hard food10.120.15
Problems with seeingSeeing is fair or worse (either distance or reading)10.140.22
Problems with hearingHearing is fair or worse10.100.21
MobilityOne or more mobility, arm function and fine motor limitations10.180.9
Orientation to date, month, year and day of weekLess than good10.150.07
Mathematical performanceScore 1 or 2 (range 1–5)10.180.15
Grip strengthMale: <37/female: <2110.150.19
Depressive symptomsEurodcat10.160.53
Verbal fluency scoreLess than 1510.230.11
Ten words listThree or less10.240.12
Delay ten words listTwo or less10.250.15
Range sum index
A&P restrictionsReported problems with…Dressing, including putting on shoes and socks10.241
Walking across a room10.340.19
Bathing or showering10.290.40
Eating, such as cutting up your food10.290.07
Getting in and out of bed10.270.54
Using the toilet, including getting up or down10.300.22
Preparing a hot meal10.220.19
Shopping for groceries10.260.63
Making telephone calls10.190.06
Taking medications10.260.11
Doing work around the house or garden10.241.14
Managing money, such as paying bills and keeping track of expenses10.270.09
Range sum index0–12
  • *Principal component analysis (PCA) with 8615 cases from the selected countries for 2004; numbers are loadings on respective components, two components impairment and A&P restriction with eigenvalues >2 extracted.

  • †Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for the final sample (n=4864). Numbers indicate loadings on component impairment and A&P restriction; the first items were used as scalars.