Table 4

HRs* and 95% CIs for circulatory system, ischaemic and cerebrovascular disease mortality associated with exposure to different types of uranium compounds

Exposure variablesNatural uraniumReprocessed uranium
Type FType MType SType FType MType S
Annual exposure status (exposed vs non-exposed)
 Circulatory system disease1.14 (0.59 to 2.19)1.12 (0.74 to 1.71)1.73 (1.11 to 2.69)1.19 (0.68 to 2.09)1.55 (0.74 to 3.24)2.13 (0.96 to 4.70)
 Ischaemic heart disease1.14 (0.41 to 3.07)1.30 (0.67 to 2.50)2.40 (1.23 to 4.64)0.55 (0.20 to 1.49)1.12 (0.35 to 3.57)1.83 (0.56 to 6.11)
 Cerebrovascular disease1.63 (0.47 to 5.68)1.07 (0.48 to 2.41)1.14 (0.49 to 2.71)2.24 (0.86 to 5.79)1.69 (0.45 to 6.34)2.50 (0.64 to 9.67)
Cumulative exposure duration (continuous, per year)
 Circulatory system disease1.01 (0.97 to 1.04)1.01 (0.98 to 1.04)1.04 (1.00 to 1.07)1.05 (0.99 to 1.11)1.09 (1.02 to 1.18)1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)
 Ischaemic heart disease1.00 (0.96 to 1.05)1.01 (0.96 to 1.06)1.04 (0.99 to 1.10)1.00 (0.90 to 1.11)1.08 (0.97 to 1.21)1.14 (1.03 to 1.26)
 Cerebrovascular disease1.03 (0.98 to 1.10)1.03 (0.97 to 1.08)1.04 (0.97 to 1.11)1.04 (0.93 to 1.16)1.09 (0.93 to 1.27)1.11 (0.95 to 1.29)
Cumulative exposure level (three-class categorical: no exposure, low to medium, high)
 Circulatory system diseaseRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
1.14 (0.59 to 2.20)1.06 (0.66 to 1.71)1.52 (0.94 to 2.48)0.99 (0.51 to 1.91)0.51 (0.12 to 2.15)1.82 (0.77 to 4.30)
1.12 (0.52 to 2.42)1.21 (0.72 to 2.02)2.84 (1.38 to 5.85)1.91 (0.81 to 4.50)3.40 (1.47 to 7.86)8.79 (1.21 to 27.62)
 Ischaemic heart diseaseRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
1.17 (0.42 to 3.20)1.42 (0.69 to 2.88)2.36 (1.18 to 4.69)0.47 (0.13 to 1.59)0.50 (0.06 to 3.84)1.57 (0.42 to 5.84)
0.96 (0.30 to 3.14)1.10 (0.48 to 2.55)2.57 (0.82 to 8.07)0.76 (0.16 to 3.52)2.05 (0.53 to 7.94)4.38 (0.47 to 40.7)
 Cerebrovascular diseaseRef.Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
1.61 (0.46 to 5.65)0.69 (0.26 to 1.88)0.68 (0.55 to 2.09)2.02 (0.70 to 5.78)2.52 (0.63 to 10.1)
1.30 (0.29 to 5.71)1.63 (0.66 to 4.06)3.26 (0.97 to 11.0)2.29 (0.59 to 14.2)5.71 (1.48 to 22.0)
Log-transformed cumulative exposure score (continuous, 10 year-lagged)
 Circulatory system disease1.02 (0.97 to 1.08)1.03 (0.98 to 1.07)1.07 (1.02 to 1.13)1.07 (1.01 to 1.15)1.14 (1.05 to 1.24)1.17 (1.07 to 1.27)
 Ischaemic heart disease1.07 (0.97 to 1.17)1.05 (0.98 to 1.13)1.13 (1.05 to 1.22)1.00 (0.90 to 1.12)1.12 (0.99 to 1.27)1.17 (1.03 to 1.33)
 Cerebrovascular disease1.00 (0.89 to 1.12)1.02 (0.93 to 1.11)1.01 (0.92 to 1.12)1.12 (1.01 to 1.25)1.13 (0.97 to 1.31)1.16 (1.00 to 1.35)
  • * Estimated using Cox regression models, stratified by sex and birth cohort, adjusted for four-class socioeconomic status and co-exposures to heat, shift work, trichloroethylene and solvents, coded as binary time-dependant variables.

  • Uranium compounds were classified in terms of absorption types (F-fast, M-moderate or S-slow solubility) according to the Human Respiratory Tract Model described in International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 6615 and to the specific workstations analytical studies.16 17