Table 1

Studies of organisational change and mental health problems

Cross-sectional studies
Author, yearSampling frameParticipationStatistical analysisAdjusted/controlled forExposureOutcome (p<0.05%)
Bourbonnais, 200529Nurses (n=2002)77.1% (76% and 84%)Binominal regressionCoping strategies, social support, domestic load, type A behaviour, personal and socio-occupational characteristics (age, familial status, seniority in the institution, job status, work shift)RestructuringExposed PR 1.84 (1.56–2.16) of psychological distress vs controls
Dragano, 200530Population (n=22 559)61%Bivariate analysesAge, east/west residency, education, occupational status, physical demands and occupational hazards, weekly working hours and job insecurityDownsizingOR 1.53 (1.30–1.79) for exposed men of increased symptom load. OR 1.71 (1.43–2.06) for exposed women
Greubel, 201131Police employees (n=1523)76%ANOVAAge, gender and shift workRelocation, extensive changes: downsizing and job changesAnxiety ↑ depression ↑
Karasek, 199032White collar (n=8504)87%Mantel-HaenszelAge, sexCompany initiated job changesDepression ↑
Pepper, 200333State employees (n=5889)55%Hierarchical linear modellingNothingDownsizing rateMental health component ↔ Perceived Stress ↔
Verhaeghe, 200634Hospitals (n=2094)51%Logistic regressionAge, sexSituational changes in working environmentDistress ↑
Longitudinal studies
Author, yearSampling frameParticipation (follow-up time)Statistical analysisAdjusted/controlled forExposureOutcome (p<0.05%)
Dahl, 201135Population (n=92 869)Registry based study (6 years)Multivariate analysis with logit modelsAge, gender, children (3 age groups), marital status, stress of parents and spouse, firm tenure, wage, occupation level, firm size, firm age and industry classificationOrganisational changeStress ↑
Ferrie, 19982White collar (n=7419)73% (∼3 years)ANOVA and logistic regressionAge and employment gradeChange in job description, increase in workload and pace of workOR 1.56 (1.30–1.86) of minor psychiatric morbidity for exposed men. For women ↔
Hansson, 200836Hospital (n=226)74% (1 year)One-way and two-way ANOVANothingReorganisation of work systemsBiological stress markers ↔
Kivimaki, 200737Municipal employees (n=26 682)Registry based study (7 years)Negative binominal regressionSex, age, education, occupational status and local governmentDownsizingRR 1.49 (1.10–2.02) of psychotropic drug use for exposed men. RR 1.12 (1.00–1.27) for exposed women
Loretto, 20103Hospital (n=5385)Baseline 18.4%, 84.3% retention rate of 1st cohort, 76.7 of 2nd cohort, (∼1 year)Logistic regressionPast GHQ casesness, personal and biographic factors, objective workplace and job characteristicsPerceived amount of overall changeOR 1.21 (1.06–1.38) of GHQ caseness when exposed to change
Moore, 200638Manufacturing company (n=460)62%–74% (∼2.5 years)ANCOVAAge, gender, education and marital statusDownsizingDepression ↔
Netterstrom, 201039Civil servants (n=685)44% (2 years)Logistic regressionAge, leadership, department and occupationMergerDepression ↔
Probst 200340State agency employees (n=313)63% (6 months)Multivariate ANOVANothingRestructuringMental health index ↔
Rohall, 200141Military officers (n=1536)85% (∼2 years)ANOVANothingDownsizingAnxiety ↑ depression ↑
Vaananen 201142Forest industry corporation (n=6511/4096)82.3% (∼4 years)Cox proportional hazard modelsSex, age, marital status, occupational status, sense of coherence and job characteristicsMergerIncreased risk of postmerger psychiatric event HR 1.60 (1.19–2.14)
Woodward 199943Hospital employees (n=346)47% (∼2 year)ANOVANothingRe-engineeringAnxiety ↑ depression ↑
  • Where applicable ratios (HR, OR, RR and PR) and 95% CIs were available in the studies, these are listed.

  • Otherwise relevant significant results are reported using errors: ↓ = decrease in symptoms; ↑ = increase in symptoms; ↔ no significant change in symptoms.

  • ANOVA, analysis of covariance; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; PR, prevalence ratio.