Table 1

Exposure agents used in the PARCC-JEM, with cut-off level* for exposure and occupations defined as exposed to small (<1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles, respectively

AgentCut-off level (mg/m3)Dust fractionExposed occupations
Exposed to small particles
Benzo(a)pyrene§0.002Furnacemen; metal annealers, temperers and case hardeners
Welding fumes§0.5Welders
Other organic dust0.5Total dustFirefighters
Exposed to large particles
Ferrous dust§0.35Respirable dustMetal casters and moulders, welders
Flour dust0.3Inhalable dustBakers and pastry cooks
Oil mist0.1Toolmakers, machine-tool setters and operators
Paper dust0.2Total dustPaper and paperboard products workers
Quartz dust§0.01Respirable dustConcrete and construction workers; well drillers, diamond drillers; potters; metal casters and moulders; miners, quarrymen, furnacemen; bricklayers; stone cutters and carvers; masons; glass and ceramics kilnmen
Stone/concrete dust1.0Inhalable dustConcrete and construction workers; well drillers, diamond drillers; potters; miners, quarrymen; bricklayers; stone cutters and carvers; mining and quarrying work n.e.c.
Textile dust0.1Total dustFur tailors: pressers; tailors and dressmakers upholsterers; spinners, weavers, knitters and dyers; launderers and dry-cleaners
Wood dust§0.2Inhalable dustConstruction carpenters and joiners; wood work; n.e.c.; bench carpenters and cabinet makers; frame and circular sawyers and planers
Other organic dust0.5Total dustWorking proprietors, agricultural, horticultural and forestry enterprises; horticultural workers; agricultural and livestock workers
Other inorganic dust and fibres1.0Inhalable dustInsulators
  • * Cut-off level: ≥1/10 of OEL.

  • Definition of exposed occupations: prevalence ≥80% and level ≥1/10 of OEL.

  • The following agents were not assessed with high exposure in any occupation in the PARCC-JEM: asbestos dust, animal-derived dust, bitumen fumes, chromium dust, cooking fumes, diesel exhaust, lead fumes/dust and nickel dust.

  • § Exposure data from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study.

  • Exposure data from the Airway Irritating Exposure-JEM.

  • JEM, job-exposure matrix; N.e.c., not elsewhere classified; OEL, occupational exposure limits; PARCC, PARrticles and Cardio- and Cerebrovascular diseases.