Table 2

General characteristics of the included economic evaluation studies on mental health interventions aimed at prevention, treatment, or return to work among (sick-listed) workers

Study Population (N analyses) Intervention and control condition Design Perspective Intervention period/time horizon Effectiveness/benefits CostsSensitivity or uncertainty analysis
Economic evaluation studies on mental health interventions aimed at prevention or treatment
 Lo Sasso et al25; USAEmployed primary care patients with depression (n=198)Enhanced treatment (N=96); usual care (N=102)CBA alongside RCTEmployer perspective2 yearsProductivity (absenteeism and presenteeism)Intervention costs; healthcare costs (2000 US$)Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses
 Bittman et al26; USALong-term care workers (n=112)Recreational music making: intervention weeks 1–6 (N=43); intervention weeks 7–12 (N=41)CBA alongside randomised cross-over studyNot statedIntervention period: 6 weeks; follow-up: 12 weeksMental health: burnout and mood dimensions; satisfaction; turnover ratesIntervention costs; turnover costs (US$; year ≤2003 (not stated))No sensitivity analyses
 Wang et al6; USAHypothetical cohort of 40-year-old workers (N not stated)Screening and enhanced depression care; usual careCUA and CBA (Markov model)Societal perspective (CUA) and employer-purchaser perspective (CBA)Intervention period: 18 months; CUA: lifetime; CBA: 5 yearsCUA: quality of life from (discounted at 3%); CBA: productivity; turnover and psychiatric hospitalisationCUA: intervention costs; healthcare costs (discounted at 3%); CBA: intervention costs; healthcare costs (2004 US$)Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses
 Vogt et al27; DenmarkAir traffic controllers (ATCOs) who experienced a (critical) incident (N=38) from the German Air Traffic Control ServicesCISM Programme: (N=18); compared with no intervention (N=20)CBA alongside cohort study (not stated)Not stated5 yearsRTW (short term): time between critical incident and full recovery; work performance; self-reported contribution of the CISM-programme on recoveryIntervention costs (2003 US$)No sensitivity analyses
Economic evaluations on interventions aimed at RTW among sick-listed workers
 Van Oostrom et al28; The NetherlandsEmployees with distress, 2–8 weeks on sick leave (N=145)Participatory RTW-intervention at occupational health services (N=73); usual care (N=72)CEA, CUA and CBA alongside RCTSocietal perspective (CUA and CEA); employer perspective (CBA)12 monthsRTW; QALYsIntervention costs; healthcare costs; costs of occupational health services; productivity costs (2008 €)Univariate sensitivity analysis; uncertainty analyses
 Brouwers et al29; The NetherlandsPatients with minor mental health problems on sick leave (max 3 months) (N=194)Intervention by trained social workers on problem-solving strategies (N=98); routine GP care (N=96)CEA, CUA and CBA alongside RCTNot statedIntervention period: 10 weeks; follow-up: 18 months;Sick leave duration; functional status; health status; medical consumptionIntervention costs; direct healthcare costs; indirect costs of production losses (€; year ≤2010 (not stated))Univariate sensitivity analyses; uncertainty analysis
 Leon et al30; USAEmployees with long-term disability claims for depression (N=598)Depression-screening programme, antidepressant medication and sessions with a psychiatristCBA based on a simulation studyNot stated1 yearRTW; savings for the insurance companyTreatment costs (US$; year ≤2002 (not stated))Univariate sensitivity analyses
 Rebergen et al31; The NetherlandsPolice workers on sick leave due to mental health problems (N=240)Activating GBC by trained occupational physicians (N=125); usual care (N=115)CEA and CBA alongside RCTCEA: societal perspective; CBA: employer perspective1 year follow-upSick leave durationHealthcare costs; productivity costs (2003 €)Univariate sensitivity analyses uncertainty analyses
 Schene et al32; The NetherlandsAdults with major depression and mean absenteeism of 242 days (N=62)Addition of occupational therapy to treatment as usual (N=30); treatment as usual (N=32)CEA, CBA alongside RCT (not stated)Not statedIntervention period: 48 weeks; time horizon: 12 monthsDepression; work resumption; work stress; productivityHealthcare costs (US$; year ≤2007 (not stated))Univariate sensitivity analyses (not stated)
 Uegaki et al33; The NetherlandsWorkers with stress-related sick leave for no longer than 3 monthsMinimal intervention (MISS) by GPs (N=227); usual care (N=206)CUA alongside cluster RCTSocietal perspectiveIntervention period: 4 weeks; time horizon: 12 monthsQALYsIntervention costs; healthcare costs productivity costs; patient/family costs (2004 €)Univariate sensitivity analyses; uncertainty analyses
  • CBA, cost-benefit analysis; CEA, cost-effectiveness analysis; CISM, Critical Incident Stress Management; CUA, cost-utility analysis; GBC, guideline-based care; GP, general practitioner; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RTW, return to work; QALY, quality adjusted life year.