Table 1

Age- and sex-adjusted mean remote-sensing-derived estimates of concentrations PM2.5 (2001–2006) according to sociodemographic characteristics among participants of the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey, for Canada and Ontario

CharacteristicCanada (n=122 548)Ontario (n=40 403)
nMean (μg/m3)95% CInMean (μg/m3)95% CI
Highest level of education
 Grade 8 or lower18 0007.557.50 to 7.60494511.1111.01 to 11.22
 Grade 9–1013 5897.507.44 to 7.56404610.9110.79 to 11.02
 Grade 11–1372377.837.74 to 7.91264511.1411.00 to 11.29
 Secondary graduation20 7798.058.00 to 9.10754911.3611.27 to 11.44
 Some postsecondary83537.937.85 to 8.01267011.3511.20 to 11.49
 Trade certificate/diploma13 8867.277.20 to 7.33335810.8210.69 to 10.95
 College certificate/diploma18 4678.358.29 to 8.40740011.2511.16 to 11.33
 University (<Bachelor's)32618.258.12 to 8.38104711.6211.38 to 11.85
 University (Bachelor)11 9878.608.53 to 8.66418612.0311.92 to 12.16
 University (>Bachelor)50119.008.89 to 9.10201612.1611.99 to 12.33
 Missing1978541
Marital status
 Married53 2907.917.88 to 7.9418 99711.2511.20 to 11.31
 Common law90617.537.45 to 7.61201010.6010.45 to 10.79
 Widowed11 9297.877.79 to 7.95396411.2611.12 to 11.40
 Separated38257.967.84 to 8.07133411.1210.91 to 11.32
 Divorced78348.077.99 to 8.15248411.4911.34 to 11.64
 Single36 4108.078.03 to 8.1211 59611.5411.45 to 11.63
 Missing19935
Household income (C$)
 None2548.608.14 to 9.0511511.4110.71 to 12.11
 <50008157.246.99 to 7.5021411.0710.56 to 11.59
 5000 to <10 00026887.447.30 to 7.5862110.9510.65 to 11.25
 10 000 to <15 00073487.487.39 to 7.56198110.9510.78 to 11.12
 15 000 to <20 00063057.527.43 to 7.61173410.9410.76 to 11.12
 20 000 to <30 00013 0017.687.61 to 7.74395711.0310.91 to 11.15
 30 000 to <40 00013 1017.837.77 to 7.90410911.2411.12 to 11.35
 40 000 to <50 00010 9537.937.86 to 8.00361211.1811.05 to 11.30
 50 000 to <60 00010 3277.977.90 to 8.04351511.2011.08 to 11.33
 60 000 to <80 00015 8868.098.03 to 8.15587211.2311.13 to 11.33
 80 000+23 4288.608.55 to 8.64989211.5911.51 to 11.66
 Missing18 4424781
Canadian-born
 Yes1 04 8137.597.57 to 7.6131 87410.8010.75 to 10.84
 No15 67910.2110.15 to 10.26803313.3613.28 to 13.44
 <5 years in Canada311410.7710.58 to 10.95148114.4714.26 to 14.68
 5 to <10 years in Canada363910.6810.53 to 10.84182614.1213.94 to 14.29
 10+ years in Canada88819.739.63 to 9.84470312.5512.44 to 12.67
 Unknown4523
 Missing2056496
  • N, number of participants.