Table 3

Prevalence (%) estimates of exposures and multinomial logistic regression analysis of association between exposure indices and work-related asthma symptoms, work-exacerbated asthma and occupational asthma

All, %Work-related asthma symptoms, adjusted OR (95% CI)Work-exacerbated asthma, adjusted OR (95% CI)Occupational asthma, adjusted OR (95% CI)
Self-reported exposures in the longest held job
 Cleaning agents
  Never/once a month17.61.001.001.00
  At least once a week13.42.64 (0.57 to 12.14)1.66 (0.28 to 9.79)0.04 (0.01 to 0.31)
  Every day32.14.33 (1.14 to 16.37)0.74 (0.19 to 2.99)0.48 (0.10 to 2.41)
  More than once a day31.85.37 (1.43 to 20.16)2.28 (0.56 to 9.27)0.81 (0.17 to 3.86)
  p Value for trend<0.0010.0640.219
 Disinfectants/sterilants
  Never/once a month16.51.001.001.00
  At least once a week13.11.66 (0.39 to 7.01)3.75 (0.35 to 40.18)0.04 (0.01 to 0.31)
  Every day28.32.83 (0.79 to 10.09)5.06 (0.79 to 32.48)0.52 (0.11 to 2.38)
  More than once a day37.22.96 (0.85 to 10.31)9.02 (1.47 to 55.35)0.71 (0.15 to 3.39)
  p Value for trend<0.0010.0070.096
Self-reported exposures in any job held for 6 months or longer
 General purpose cleaning
  Factor 13.93 (1.66 to 9.32)1.91 (0.71 to 5.15)1.30 (0.34 to 4.96)
   Bleach55.53.72 (1.70 to 8.12)3.13 (1.08 to 9.08)3.22 (0.63 to 16.53)
   Room cleaners76.42.04 (0.78 to 5.34)0.94 (0.31 to 2.83)0.67 (0.16 to 2.87)
   Cleaners/abrasives56.42.50 (1.19 to 5.25)1.24 (0.42 to 3.65)1.32 (0.40 to 4.42)
   Cleaners for restroom and toilets57.54.60 (2.12 to 9.95)0.64 (0.24 to 1.72)1.39 (0.35 to 5.50)
   Detergents55.82.84 (1.33 to 6.08)1.96 (0.63 to 6.09)0.94 (0.29 to 3.07)
   Disinfectants80.92.50 (0.78 to 8.09)4.03 (0.86 to 18.79)3.93 (0.75 to 20.69)
   Ammonia23.02.45 (1.28 to 4.69)1.58 (0.56 to 4.43)1.86 (0.49 to 7.13)
 Instrument cleaning/sterilisation
  Factor 22.14 (1.06 to 4.32)3.40 (1.35 to 8.53)2.25 (0.76 to 6.66)
   Glutaraldehyde/ortho-phtaldehyde38.42.18 (1.17 to 4.07)1.57 (0.58 to 4.27)1.03 (0.29 to 3.58)
   Formalin/formaldehyde27.21.48 (0.71 to 3.07)2.66 (1.03 to 6.86)1.77 (0.55 to 5.75)
   Chloramines9.23.81 (1.79 to 8.11)2.02 (0.52 to 7.89)4.81 (1.28 to 18.06)
   Ethylene oxide7.62.97 (1.21 to 7.33)2.55 (0.41 to 15.86)1.61 (0.33 to 7.85)
Number of exposures
 0–220.31.001.001.00
 3–522.21.66 (0.40 to 6.83)0.51 (0.07 to 3.74)1.25 (0.18 to 8.84)
 6 or more40.84.45 (1.25 to 15.86)1.56 (0.52 to 4.68)1.09 (0.22 to 5.48)
 p Value for trend<0.0010.0540.445
  • OR adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, seniority, atopy and smoking status.