Table 3

Changes in biological stress indices (cortisol and α-amylase)

VariableProgrammeTime pointES (95% CI)p Value
IG: n=75Baseline, mean (SD)Post intervention, mean (SD)Group effectTime effectGroup×time effect
CG: n=79
Cortisol (n=130)
 Area under the curve, morningIG18.23 (5.26)15.73 (7.71)0.379 (0.006 to 0751)0.3030.0000.708
CG17.49 (6.09)14.42 (8.26)0.424 (−0.074 to 0.774)
 Cortisol awakening responseIG9.08 (7.10)8.25 (9.10)0.102 (−0.261 to 0.465)0.8940.0830.359
CG9.85 (8.17)7.18 (9.19)0.307 (−0.041 to 0.655)
 Area under the curve, daytimeIG62.20 (24.82)57.70 (39.46)0.136 (−0.241 to 0.513)0.5680.0020.114
CG64.03 (23.05)50.62 (28.73)0.515 (−0.163 to 0.867)
 Daytime slope cortisolIG−0.633 (0.283)−0.642 (0.436)0.024 (−0.331 to 0.380)0.3200.5670.746
CG−0.575 (0.306)−0.609 (0.315)0.092 (−0.243 to 0.428)
α-Amylase (n=127)
 Area under the curve, morningIG46.26 (35.70)38.59 (25.96)0.246 (−0.148 to 0.640)0.9240.0110.550
CG47.79 (74.17)35.51 (31.87)0.215 (−0.150 to 0.581)
 Area under the curve, daytimeIG1230.1 (919.0)983.2 (599.5)0.318 (−0.070 to 0.706)0.6640.0050.076
CG1075 (819.6)1018.8 (776.0)0.071 (−0.280 to 0.421)
Daytime slope, α-amylaseIG0.130 (0.231)0.048 (0.254)0.338 (−0.028 to 0.703)0.4790.1270.075
CG0.109 (0.197)0.116 (0.256)0.031 (−0.369 to 0.307)
  • CG, control group; ES, effect size (Cohen's d); IG, intervention group.