Table 2

Correlations between studied parameters

AgePack-yearsLog CdU (μg/l)Log CdU (μg/g creatinine)Log CrU (μg/l)Log RBPU (μg/l)Log RBPU (μg/g creatinine)Log β2-mU (μg/l)Log β2-mU (μg/l)>20
Log CdU, μg/l0.39***0.15***
Log CdU, μg/g creatinine0.52***0.18***0.88***
Log CrU, μg/l−0.26***0.060.25***−0.24***
Log RBPU, μg/l0.010.18***0.37***0.070.60***
Log RBPU, μg/g creatinine0.24***0.22***0.23***0.30***−0.14***0.71***
Log β2-mU, μg/l0.020.15**0.10****0.42***
Log β2-mU, μg/g creatinine0.14**0.16***−0.030.18***−0.45***0.010.43***0.87***
Log β2-mU>20 μg/l0.030.18***0.28***0.15**0.28***0.59***0.51***
Log β2-mU>20 μg/g creatinine0.21***0.19***0.10*0.30***−0.42***0.11*0.55***0.76***
  • r Values are Pearson's correlation coefficients.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Indicates Spearman's rank correlation coefficients with number of pack-years.

  • β2-mU, concentration of β2-microglobulin in urine; CdU, concentration of cadmium in urine; CrU, concentration of creatinine in urine; RBPU, concentration of retinol-binding protein in urine.