Table 1

Characteristics of study participants by noise exposure status (unweighted sample size and weighted percentage)*

Never exposed (n=5071)Current exposed (n=1236)Tertiles of accumulated exposure time
Short (n=421)Medium (n=399)Long (n=416)
Age (years), mean (SE) §41.0 (0.3)40.0 (0.4)35.9 (0.7)39.6 (0.6)44.4 (0.5)
Male, n (%) §2147 (41.6)993 (83.3)331(80.6)318 (84.5)344 (84.9)
Ethnicity, n (%) §
 Non-Hispanic white2351 (68.7)635 (75.5)204 (71.3)215 (76.9)216 (78.3)
 Non-Hispanic black1100 (12.0)190 (7.5)73 (9.1)51 (6.1)66 (7.4)
 Mexican American1155 (8.0)334 (9.4)118 (11.1)102 (8.7)114 (8.3)
Education, n (%) §
 <High school1208 (14.7)366 (19.0)125 (20.6)111 (17.3)130 (19.1)
 High school1097 (22.3)391 (35.7)111 (28.2)136 (37.6)144 (41.3)
 >High school2766 (63.0)479 (45.3)185 (51.2)152 (45.1)142 (39.6)
Annual family income, n (%) §
 Low (<US$25 000)1444 (24.5)349 (21.8)151 (30.5)112 (20.2)86 (14.5)
 Medium (≥US$25 000 to <US$55 000)1507 (31.4)442 (39.3)149 (39.7)148 (39.9)145 (38.3)
 High (≥US$55 000)1704 (44.1)360 (38.8)94 (29.9)120 (39.8)146 (47.2)
Physical activity, n (%)
 Active1750 (39.4)442 (39.8)170 (44.0)139 (40.3)133 (35.0)
 Moderate1322 (28.3)319 (27.7)101 (25.8)109 (28.1)109 (29.3)
 Inactive1999 (32.4)475 (32.5)150 (30.2)151 (31.6)174 (35.8)
Cigarette smoking, n (%) §
 Current smoker1087 (22.7)408 (35.7)155 (40.3)134 (33.9)119 (32.8)
 Former smoker1068 (21.6)302 (24.3)84 (19.5)91 (23.8)127 (29.9)
 Never smoker2916 (55.7)526 (40.0)182 (40.2)174 (42.4)170 (37.3)
Pack-years, median (IQR) § 8.9 (2.5–23.8)11.9 (3.9–24.8)10.6 (3.5–21.8)11.8 (3.9–24.7)13.1 (4.9–27.4)
Passive smoking, n (%) §1444 (28.9)627 (53.4)230 (56.3)198 (51.0)199 (52.8)
Alcohol drinking, n (%) §3322 (74.3)948 (84.7)326 (86.1)310 (84.2)312 (83.8)
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SE)§27.9 (0.1)28.1 (0.2)27.7 (0.3)27.9 (0.3)28.8 (0.3)
Waist circumference (cm), mean (SE) §94.3 (0.3)97.9 (0.5)96.7 (0.8)97.1 (0.8)99.8 (0.7)
Pulse rate (bpm), mean (SE) §72.5 (0.3)70.1 (0.5)71.3 (0.7)69.6 (0.8)69.5 (0.7)
SBP (mm Hg), mean (SE) §119.5 (0.4)121.3 (0.5)120.0 (0.9)121.0 (1.0)123.0 (0.8)
DBP (mm Hg), mean (SE) §72.6 (0.3)74.2 (0.4)72.5 (0.6)74.3 (0.8)76.0 (0.6)
Hearing loss, n (%) §783 (16.1)349 (31.6)93 (25.5)108 (31.2)148 (38.1)
  • BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; IQR, interquartile range; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SE, standard error.

  • * Sample size is unweighted, percentage in parentheses is weighted to account for multistage probability sampling design.

  • Tertiles of accumulated exposure time: short 0–0.3 years, medium 0.4–1.5 years, long 1.6–18.8 years.

  • p<0.05 for the comparison between the current exposed group and the never exposed group.

  • § p<0.05 for the comparison between tertile groups and the never exposed group.

  • Median (interquartile range) for current and former cigarette smokers.