Table 2

Characteristics of the work-directed part of the interventions

Author(s)Start/end intervention, duration settingInpatient/outpatient, settingDescription of the interventionsDiscipline of trainers or counsellors
Capone et al28One session prior to initial treatment, last session prior to dischargeInpatient, gynaecologicalEfforts were made to encourage early return to usual social functions.Psychologist
Maguire et al38Within a few days after surgery, follow-up every 2 months unless patient adapted wellInpatient, surgical unit/outpatient, at homeMonitor their progress concerning among others return to work. Patients were encouraged to return to work.Specialist nurse
Clark and Landis5At the time of diagnosisOutpatienta. Prevention-anticipatory guidance: potential problems are identified, strategies are selected to clarify misconceptions and debunk myths related to cancer, evaluate organisational policies and practices that may discriminate against patients with cancer and modify negative attitudes towards patients with cancer in the workplace. Attention should be paid to the other members of the organisation.Management team, occupational health team, and co-workers
b. Restoration-rehabilitation counselling: assessment of cancer treatment and job requirements, satisfaction with work and work situation, desire to work during or after treatment. Develop a strategy for information sharing about the cancer experience with co-workers. A comprehensive work-re-entry plan is made (ie, temporary work reassignment, rescheduling, retraining for another job, exploration for career options, flexible work schedules, job sharing).Occupational health nurse, management personnel of the company and healthcare providers of the community
c. Support health maintenance and counselling: counselling regarding safety measures, regular follow-up in the early phase of re-entry process. Informing about insurance benefits, disability and rehabilitation benefits of employment.Occupational health nurse
Mellette39At the time of diagnosisInpatient, hospital/outpatient in the clinic or at homeTo facilitate patients' return to work, the speech pathologist or rehabilitation counsellor calls or visits their employer.Rehabilitation counsellor or speech pathologist
Leitsmann et al37Particularly in the first 2 years after diagnosis, after primary treatmentOutpatient, hospitala. Work was among others a topic of the group sessions. Advice about work was linked to the group sessions. Semi-structured interviews preceding the group sessions were organised in order to facilitate the decision process about reintegration into working life.Mainly carried out by a psychologist
b. Work which corresponds with the needs of rehabilitation (eg, reduction working hours) and change of job can be arranged in collaboration with social worker, general practitioner, company and specialist.Social worker, general practitioner, company, and specialist
Zampini and Ostroff46After completion treatmentOutpatient, office buildinga. Education — seminars and workshops: for example employability and legal rights, career development, job search skillsInvited speaker, staff member with expertise in insurance and employment, consultants from the psychiatry services, social worker, and volunteer
b. Counselling support: for example career decisions.
Berglund et al25Within 2 months after postoperative treatment with radio- and/or chemotherapy, during 7 weeksOutpatient, hospital or centre separate from the hospitalCoping: by role playing of common situations when returning to work whereas the following situations were included: how to handle problem situations; people asking too much or too little or having peculiar attitudes towards cancer.Psychologist, oncology nurse
Rinehart42After surgeryInpatient, hospital/outpatient, at home, by phone, physician's officeTo provide tips about handling issues such as related to their job.Trained volunteer (peer model) who is matched to the patient by age, and type of surgery
Sherer et al43On average 75.4 ± 87.9 months since diagnosis, during on average 2.6±1.9 monthsInpatient rehabilitation clinica. Initial evaluation of functioning (eg, work site observation).Psychologist, speech/language pathologist, occupational therapist, and vocational specialist
Outpatient community-based settingb. Volunteer job placement, performing duties similar to the patient's desired eventual vocational goal. Additional interventions if necessary.
c. Patients were assisted with returning to their desired independence or productive activities (ie, writing a resume, organising a job search, facilitate patient's use of compensatory strategy, periodic follow-up to maintain therapeutic gains).
d. Therapists visit the job site to facilitate the patient's use of compensatory strategies and to recommend any alternations of the site or job duties needed to ensure the patient's optimal performance.
Fismen et al31After end of medical treatment, during 4 monthsOutpatient, rehabilitation centre and at homeRelationship with colleagues was among others a topic of the cognitive group discussions.Nurse, oncologist
Van Weert et al44Median time since end of treatment 7.1 months, during 6 weeksOutpatient, rehabilitation centreInformation: reduce uncertainty due to lack of knowledge of the disease by providing information with respect to cancer-related subjects such as work.Several healthcare professionals
Van Weert et al45Median time since end of treatment 11.3±13.2 months, during 15 weeks
Cimprich et al30Following completion treatment, during 7 weeksOutpatientGroup sessions dealing with psychological well being and transitioning successfully work: sharing the challenges of return to work and discussions on strategies and resources to facilitate a smooth return to work. Participants select specific goals and identify needed skills based on their own concerns.Oncology nurse practitioner and health educator
Heim and Schwerte33NRInpatient/outpatientVocational rehabilitation: gradual return to work with limited working hours, group sessions with theme work, workplace training on vocational aid (ie, technical work aid, training course, reintegration aid).Several healthcare professionals
Korstjens et al35Time since end of treatment 1.3±2.0 years, during 3 monthsOutpatient, rehabilitation centrePsycho-education: providing support in coping with cancer and enhancing self-confidence and autonomy. Discussion on subjects such as returning to work.Oncology nurse, psychologist, social worker and dietary advisor
Nieuwenhuijsen et al41Range 3–202 (median 45) days after the initial radiation therapyOutpatient, hospitala. The researcher sends two letters from the radiologist to the occupational physician with information about diagnosis, treatment plan and outcome of the treatment.Researchers
b. The educational leaflet with practical guidelines (10 steps of advice — eg, make return-to-work plan) was given to the patients to enhance return to work and was sent to the occupational physician.Radiotherapy oncologist
Meneses et al40Within 1 year of diagnosis, at least 1 month after surgery, during 6 monthsOutpatientFace-to-face education and support session with topics such as work.Oncology nurse
Høybye et al34Completed primary treatment, during 6 daysOutpatient, mediaeval castleLectures and patient group work on themes such as working life.Several healthcare professionals
Korstjens et al36Time since end of treatment 1.3±1.7 years, during 12 weeksOutpatient, rehabilitation centre or hospitalCognitive-behavioural training: interactive psycho-education and self-management skills training. Patients learn to apply self-management skills in striving for personal goals such as work.Psychologist, nurse, physiotherapist, and social worker
Chan et al29NRState vocational rehabilitation servicesAssessment, diagnosis and treatment of impairments, vocational rehabilitation counselling and guidance, college or university training, occupational/vocational training, on-the-job training, basic academic remedial or literacy training, job readiness training, disability-related augmentative skills training, miscellaneous training, job search assistance, job placement assistance, on-the-job supports, transportation services, maintenance services, rehabilitation technology, reader services, interpreter services, personal attendant services, technical assistance services, information and referral services and other services.Rehabilitation counsellor