Table 2

Association between employment status of pregnant women and pregnancy outcomes

Pregnancy outcomesOverall (n)Cases (n)OR for adverse pregnancy outcome (95% CI)
Unemployed (n=1703)Paid employment (n=4408)
UnadjustedAdjusted
Pregnancy-induced hypertension5994239Reference1.18 (0.88 to 1.60)0.73 (0.50 to 1.05)
Pre-eclampsia5994126Reference0.96 (0.65 to 1.42)0.96 (0.60 to 1.53)
Gestational diabetes589866Reference1.20 (0.68 to 2.12)1.84 (0.95 to 3.54)
Preterm ruptured membranes5891222Reference0.71 (0.54 to 0.95)*0.78 (0.55 to 1.09)
Poor progress of delivery5888952Reference1.49 (1.26 to 1.76)*1.06 (0.87 to 1.30)
Mode of delivery5585
 Assisted vaginal delivery969Reference2.04 (1.71 to 2.44)*1.23 (0.96 to 1.53)
 Elective caesarean delivery268Reference1.72 (1.27 to 2.33)*1.18 (0.83 to 1.69)
 Emergency caesarean delivery442Reference1.26 (1.01 to 1.58)*0.84 (0.64 to 1.11)
Preterm birth (<37 weeks)6110292Reference0.73 (0.57 to 0.94)*0.79 (0.59 to 1.07)
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid5833901Reference0.85 (0.73 to 0.99)*0.87 (0.72 to 1.05)
Apgar score at 5 min (<7)590763Reference0.62 (0.37 to 1.03)0.56 (0.30 to 1.04)
Small-for-gestational-age (<10th percentile)6089598Reference0.78 (0.65 to 0.93)*0.98 (0.79 to 1.22)
Difference between types of employment status (95% CI)
Birth weight (g)§6093Reference84 (53 to 114)3 (−28 to 35)
  • * p<0.05.

  • Adjusted for pregnant women's age, parity, educational level, family income, ethnicity, marital status, psychopathological symptoms, smoking and drinking during pregnancy, body mass index (BMI) and offspring's gender. The analyses for birth weight were additionally adjusted for gestational age at birth.

  • Compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery.

  • § Differences in birth weight are betas from linear regression analyses.