Table 2

Higher aldehydes (μg/m3) measured in the breathing zone of the cook during the pan frying of beefsteak using an electric stove or a gas stove using margarine or soya bean oil as the frying fat

 Frying fat Stove Number of samples t,t-2,4-Decadienal (mean (SD)) 2,4-Decadienal (mean (SD)) t-2-Decenal (mean (SD)) c-2-Decenal (mean (SD)) 2-Undecenal (mean (SD)) Alkanals* (mean (SD)) Alkenals* (mean (SD)) Margarine Electric 3 8.67 (3.51) 3.33 (1.15) ND 6.33 (3.06) 6.33 (3.06) 47.33 (11.02) 9.33 (2.89) Gas 3 36.33† (13.01) 16.00† (7.00) 36.00 (25.46), n=2 28.00 (–), n=1 32.67† (15.18) 139.00† (48.88) 44.00 (21.63) Soya bean oil Electric 6 19.83 (8.18) 7.00 (3.80) 5.67 (5.51), n=3 7.33 (2.08), n=3 7.50 (5.75) 57.83 (10.28) 20.83 (6.52) Gas 5 61.80‡ (26.43) 24.20‡ (15.35) 22.00‡ (2.83), n=2 24.00 (18.52), n=3 24.60‡ (14.71) 127.20‡ (50.16) 70.60‡ (34.40)
• The results are given as the arithmetic mean (SD) level of higher aldehydes measured during 1 day of frying (one sample/day), each day including five repetitions of the standard frying procedure and five 25 min breaks. The number of samples for each kind of frying fat and stove is listed. ND, no single results above the detection limit, detection limit=0.05 μg/m3.

• * The total sum of alkanals/alkenals other than the ones listed separately in the table.

• The level is statistically significantly (p<0.05) different from the level measured during frying with margarine on the electric stove.

• The level is statistically significantly (p<0.05) different from the level measured during frying with soya bean oil on the electric stove.