Table 3 Adjusted relative risks (95% CI) for association between overall cardiovascular mortality and more specific cardiovascular mortality causes, and background black smoke (continuous), traffic intensity on the nearest road (continuous) and traffic noise exposure (in categories) assessed separately and together*
ModelExposureCardiovascular(n = 6137),RR (95% CI)Ischaemic heart disease(n = 3521),RR (95% CI)Cerebrovascular(n = 1175),RR (95% CI)Heart failure(n = 422),RR (95% CI)Cardiac dysrhythmia(n = 339)RR (95% CI)
Air pollution indicatorsBackground black smoke1.11 (0.96 to 1.28)1.01 (0.83 to 1.22)1.39 (0.99 to 1.94)1.75 (1.00 to 3.05)0.96 (0.51 to 1.79)
Traffic intensity on nearest road1.05 (0.99 to 1.12)1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)0.82 (0.68 to 1.00)1.07 (0.86 to 1.34)1.04 (0.79 to 1.36)
Traffic noise exposureTraffic noise 50–55 dB(A)1.00 (0.94 to 1.07)1.00 (0.92 to 1.09)0.90 (0.78 to 1.04)1.08 (0.85 to 1.38)1.03 (0.78 to 1.36)
Traffic noise 55–60 dB(A)1.00 (0.93 to 1.08)1.02 (0.93 to 1.12)0.89 (0.76 to 1.05)1.00 (0.76 to 1.32)1.08 (0.80 to 1.46)
Traffic noise 60–65 dB(A)0.91 (0.81 to 1.03)0.95 (0.82 to 1.11)0.59 (0.43 to 0.80)1.04 (0.67 to 1.61)1.08 (0.67 to 1.72)
Traffic noise >65 dB(A)1.25 (1.01 to 1.53)1.15 (0.86 to 1.53)0.88 (0.52 to 1.50)1.99 (1.05 to 3.79)1.23 (0.50 to 3.01)
Both air pollution indicators and traffic noise exposureBackground black smoke1.11 (0.95 to 1.28)1.01 (0.83 to 1.22)1.41 (1.01 to 1.97)1.76 (1.01 to 3.08)0.94 (0.50 to 1.76)
Traffic intensity on nearest road1.06 (0.99 to 1.13)1.12 (1.04 to 1.21)0.90 (0.74 to 1.10)1.02 (0.79 to 1.32)1.01 (0.75 to 1.36)
Traffic noise 50–55 dB(A)1.00 (0.94 to 1.07)1.00 (0.91 to 1.09)0.90 (0.78 to 1.04)1.07 (0.83 to 1.37)1.03 (0.78 to 1.36)
Traffic noise 55–60 dB(A)0.99 (0.92 to 1.06)1.00 (0.91 to 1.10)0.89 (0.76 to 1.05)0.97 (0.73 to 1.29)1.09 (0.80 to 1.47)
Traffic noise 60–65 dB(A)0.88 (0.78 to 1.00)0.90 (0.76 to 1.06)0.61 (0.44 to 0.84)1.01 (0.64 to 1.59)1.07 (0.66 to 1.76)
Traffic noise >65 dB(A)1.17 (0.94 to 1.45)1.01 (0.74 to 1.36)0.95 (0.55 to 1.66)1.90 (0.96 to 3.78)1.23 (0.48 to 3.13)
  • *Adjusted for age, gender, smoking status and area level indicators of socio-economic status.

  • Relative risks for continuous variables were calculated for changes from the 5th to the 95th percentile, for black smoke (10 μg/m3 increment) and for traffic intensity on the nearest road (10 000 mvh/24 h increment). Relative risks for traffic noise in categories were calculated with category ⩽50 dB(A) as reference category. dB(A), A-weighted average sound pressure decibel levels; n, number of cases; RR, relative risk.