Table 6 Summary of epidemiological studies with positive and negative associations between individual and work-related factors, and poor or decreased Work Ability Index
FactorPositive associationsNull associationsNegative associations
Logistic regressionOther analysisLogistic regressionOther analysisLogistic regressionOther analysis
NoRange ORNoNoRange ORNoNoRange ORNo
1. Demographic factors
    A. Older age21.90–3.57220.84–1.00010.710
    B. Female0021.30–1.43000
    C. Low education11.20011.09000
    D. Low income11.92110.98000
    E. Other21.56–1.96111.12000
2. Physical condition
    A. Poor cardiorespiratory condition0121.86–1.94000
    B. Poor musculoskeletal capacity36.39–9.1210000
    C. Poor mental performance0021.54–1.75000
    D. Poor balance16.53022.40–3.60000
3. Lifestyle factors
    A. Overweight22.71–7.51230.29–1.50000
    B. Lack of leisure-time physical activity21.80–7.18211.77000
    C. Smoking0111.61100
    D. Other127.63010.80001
4. Work-related psychosocial and organisational factors
    A. High mental work demands14.75421.40–1.21000
    B. Poor autonomy11.95211.40000
    C. Other13.60320.69–1.58001
5. Work-related physical factors
    A. High physical demands21.80–2.54220.95–2.02100
    B. High physical exposure0221.10–1.55000
  • OR, odds ratio.