Table 5 Associations between work-related determinants and Work Ability Index (WAI) in longitudinal epidemiological studies among occupational populations
AuthorsFollow-upStudy populationWAI outcomeDeterminantMeasure of association (95% CI)Adjustments*
Tuomi et al 199124L (4 years) 1981–19854255 municipal workers, mean age 50 yearsChange in WAIHigh physical demandsβ −0.06 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Good possibilities to developβ 0.03 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor physical environmentβ −0.05 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor work scheduleβ −0.03 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Physical stress at workβ −0.08 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
1064 municipal workers with musculoskeletal diseaseChange in WAIMuscular workβ −0.09 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor work postureβ −0.10 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Change of workload in the past 2 yearsβ −0.07 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor work temperatureβ −0.16 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor managementβ −0.10 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Lack of freedomβ −0.07 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor work scheduleβ −0.08 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
522 municipal workers with cardiovascular diseaseChange in WAIMuscular workβ −0.27 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Sitting workβ −0.15 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Responsibility for peopleβ 0.10 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor tools and roomsβ −0.08 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor physical climateβ −0.10 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Noisy and restless workplaceβ −0.09 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Poor work scheduleβ −0.07 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
118 municipal workers with mental diseaseChange in WAILack of freedomβ −0.27 (Sign.)1A 3A, C 4A, C 5A, B
Tuomi et al 199726L (11 years) 1981–1992818 municipal workers, mean age 47 yearsIncrease (+⩾3) in WAINo harmful lack of freedomOR 0.9 (0.8 to 1.0)None
Decreased noisy and restless workplaceOR 3.4 (1.6 to 7.2)1A 3B 4B, C 5A
Decreased management strainOR 2.0 (1.0 to 3.7)1A 3B 4B, C 5A
Decreased role ambiguityOR 2.1 (0.9 to 5.1)None
Increased freedomOR 2.8 (1.0 to 7.8)None
Increased satisfaction with supervisor’s attitudeOR 3.6 (1.8 to 7.2)3B, 5A
Decrease (−⩾10)Decreased possibilities for development and influence at workOR 2.4 (1.4 to 4.3)1A 3B 4B, C 5A, B
Increased role ambiguityOR 1.9 (1.4 to 2.7)1A 3B 4B, C 5A, B
Decreased freedomOR 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0)None
Decreased possibility for recognition and esteem at workOR 2.4 (1.4 to 4.3)3B 5A, B
Increase (+⩾3) in WAIDecreased muscular workOR 2.8 (1.2 to 6.6)None
Improved work posturesOR 2.9 (1.3 to 6.5)1A 3B 4B, C 5A
Decreased repetitive movementsOR 2.1 (1.0 to 3.4)3B, 4C
Tuomi et al 199726L (11 years) 1981–1992818 municipal workers, mean age 47 yearsDecrease (−⩾10)Poor work temperatureOR 1.1 (1.0 to 1.1)3B 5A, B
Increased muscular workOR 1.8 (1.2 to 2.8)3B 5A, B
Increased difficult work posturesOR 1.5 (1.0 to 2.2)None
Increased standing in one placeOR 1.7 (1.0 to 2.9)3B 4C 5A, B
Tuomi et al 200427L (2 years) 1998–20001389 Finnish active workers in metal industry and retail, mean age 43.9 yearsIncrease in WAIIncrease in opportunities for influenceβ 0.51 (Sign.)1A, B 3B, C 4A, B, C 5A, B
Increase in promotion of employee well-beingβ 0.53 (Sign.)1A, B 3B, C 4A, B, C 5A, B
Decrease in uncertainty at the workplaceβ 0.70 (Sign.)1A, B 3B, C 4A, B, C 5A, B
Decrease in mental demands at workβ 0.89 (Sign.)1A, B 3B, C 4A, B, C 5A, B
Decrease in physical demands at workβ 1.35 (Sign.)1A, B 3B, C 4A, B, C 5A, B
  • *For the identification of the covariates, see table 6.

  • β, linear regression coefficient; F, females; L, longitudinal study design; M, males; OR, odds ratio; Sign., p<0.05.