Table 4 Associations between work-related determinants and Work Ability Index (WAI) in cross-sectional epidemiological studies among occupational populations
AuthorsStudy populationWAIDeterminantMeasure of association (95% CI)Adjustments*
Aittomaki et al 200312429 municipal workers (M), mean age 49.2 yearsWAI <32Blue-collar workerOR 0.95 (0.42 to 2.19)1A, E 4C
1398 municipal workers (F), mean age 49.2 yearsWAI <32Blue-collar workerOR 1.11 (0.67 to 1.84)1A, E 4C
Fischer et al 200614696 care givers, mean age 34.9 yearsWAI <37Shift workOR 1.61 (0.89 to 2.91)1A, D, E 3A 4C 5A, B
Never organised workplaceOR 0.69 (0.32 to 1.51)1A, D, E 3A 4C 5A, B
Often conflict with patientsOR 1.39 (0.82 to 2.35)1A, D, E 3A 4C 5A, B
>2 times verbal abuse (past month)OR 1.67 (1.00 to 3.04)1A, D, E 3A 4C 5A, B
High-strain jobOR 1.21 (0.70 to 2.10)1A, D, E 3A 4C 5A, B
Often thermal discomfortOR 1.55 (1.00 to 2.40)1A, D, E 3A 4C 5A, B
Often lifting patientsOR 2.02 (0.96 to 4.25)1A, D, E 3A 4C 5A, B
Pohjonen 2001b20636 home care workers (F), mean age 42.3 yearsDecrease WAI classificationHigh time pressureOR 1.05 (0.53 to 2.07)4A, B, C 5A
Poor possibilities to control one’s own workOR 1.95 (1.02 to 3.72)1A, C, E 3B 4A, B, C 5A
Poor managementOR 1.58 (0.86 to 2.94)4A, B, C 5A
High mental work demandsOR 1.40 (0.79 to 2.48)None
Poor ergonomic conditionsOR 2.54 (1.21 to 5.30)1A, C, E 3B 4A, B, C 5A
Pranjic et al 200621534 physicians, mean age 44 yearsDecrease WAI classificationOften exposed to mobbingOR 4.75 (4.14 to 5.35)4C
Sjogren-Ronka et al 20022388 office workers, mean age 45.7 yearsWAI 7–49High mental stressβ −0.17 (Sign.)2A, B, C 3B
Tuomi et al 2001251101 Finnish active workers, mean age 58.4 yearsWAI 7–49Muscular workβ −0.22 (0.067)4A, C 5A, B
Poor work posturesβ −0.44 (Sign.)4A, C 5A, B
Intelligence demandβ 0.46 (Sign.)4A, C 5A, B
Poor work tools and roomsβ −0.35 (Sign.)4A, C 5A, B
Poor physical climateβ −0.29 (Sign.)4A, C 5A, B
Restless work environmentβ −0.33 (Sign.)4A, C 5A, B
Poor managementβ −0.54 (Sign.)4B, C
Lack of freedomβ −0.31 (Sign.)4B, C
Uninspiring workβ −0.65 (Sign.)4B, C
Utilisation of work experienceβ 0.94 (Sign.)4B, C
Possibilities for development and influence at workβ 0.65 (Sign.)4C
Job retrainingβ −3.41 (Sign.)4C
Subjective improvement in work and tasksβ 1.05 (Sign.)4A, C 5A, B
Subjective improvement in work environment and toolsβ 0.47 (0.089)4A, C 5A, B
Subjective increase in mental workloadβ −1.21 (Sign.)4A, C 5A, B
  • *For the identification of the covariates, see table 6.

  • β, linear regression coefficient; F, females; M, males; OR, odds ratio; Sign., p<0.05.