Table 5 Relation between solvent exposure and subgroups of major congenital malformations (chromosomal and genetic malformations excluded)
Self-reported exposureJEM-assessed exposure
Never or occasionalRegularNo exposureExposure
No malformations (n = 2897)19048102154576
Nervous system (n = 4)1331
    OR (95% CI)17.05 (0.7 to 67.9)11.25 (0.1 to 12.0)
    OR* (95% CI)16.58 (0.7 to 63.9)11.30 (0.1 to 12.5)
Cardiac malformations (n = 6)5151
    OR (95% CI)10.47 (0.1 to 4.0)10.75 (0.1 to 6.4)
    OR† (95% CI)10.47 (0.1 to 4.0)10.75 (0.1 to 6.5)
Oro-facial clefts (n = 8)3526
    OR (95% CI)13.92 (0.9 to 16.4)111.22 (2.3 to 55.7)
    OR‡ (95% CI)13.60 (0.8 to 16.0)112.85 (2.6 to 64.7)
Urinary malformations (n = 13)4766
    OR (95% CI)14.11 (1.2 to 14.1)13.74 (1.2 to 11.6)
    OR§ (95% CI)12.18 (0.6 to 8.0)13.40 (1.1 to 10.8)
Male genital malformations¶ (n = 12)5784
    OR (95% CI)13.43 (1.1 to 10.9)11.98 (0.6 to 6.6)
    OR** (95% CI)13.57 (1.1 to 11.4)12.06 (0.6 to 6.9)
Limb malformations (n = 20)127155
    OR (95% CI)11.37 (0.5 to 3.5)11.24 (0.5 to 3.4)
    OR‡ (95% CI)11.46 (0.6 to 3.9)11.29 (0.5 to 3.6)
Other major malformations (n = 8)7180
    OR (95% CI)10.34 (0.0 to 2.7)
    OR* (95% CI)10.32 (0.0 to 2.6)
  • *Adjusted for tobacco and alcohol consumption.

  • †Adjusted for alcohol consumption.

  • ‡Adjusted for maternal age, tobacco and alcohol consumption and education level.

  • §Adjusted for maternal age, tobacco consumption and education level.

  • ¶Analyses restricted to boys only.

  • **Adjusted for tobacco and alcohol consumption and preterm birth.

  • JEM, job-exposure matrix; OR, odds ratio.