Table 2 Results for mortality meta-analyses using random effects models
Mortality outcome*Total cohortsPhenoxy herbicide cohorts
Pooled estimate(95% CI)No. of studiesBetween study varianceTest for hetero-geneity p valuePooled estimate(95% CI)No. of studiesBetween study varianceTest for hetero-geneity p value
All-cause0.94 (0.881 to 1.002)370.022<0.0011.00 (0.902 to 1.105)200.028<0.001
All malignant neoplasms1.06 (0.986 to 1.149)360.0130.0551.10 (0.986 to 1.228)200.0110.187
Buccal cavity and pharynx (Ca)1.42 (1.014 to 1.999)280.1010.2791.48 (0.942 to 2.309)200.2480.149
Digestive organs and peritoneum (Ca)1.07 (0.952 to 1.199)360.0020.4371.05 (0.892 to 1.230)20<0.0010.565
Oesophagus (Ca)1.64 (1.198 to 2.244)26<0.0010.7921.57 (1.088 to 2.253)20<0.0010.755
Stomach (Ca)1.2 (0.979 to 1.476)32<0.0010.5971.07 (0.821 to 1.392)20<0.0010.932
Lower intestine (Ca)0.95 (0.758 to 1.202)31<0.0010.9900.90 (0.646 to 1.265)20<0.0010.977
Rectum (Ca)1.37 (1.071 to 1.762)28<0.0010.7881.34 (0.959 to 1.861)20<0.0010.875
Liver and biliary passage (Ca)1.21 (0.883 to 1.654)28<0.0010.9300.85 (0.566 to 1.283)20<0.0011.000
Pancreas (Ca)1.13 (0.85 to 1.497)28<0.0010.9311.23 (0.864 to 1.748)20<0.0010.735
Respiratory system (Ca)1.26 (1.093 to 1.45)360.0650.0031.34 (1.128 to 1.596)200.0290.191
Larynx (Ca)1.58 (1.086 to 2.31)23<0.0010.7101.51 (1.006 to 2.278)20<0.0010.667
Bronchus, trachea and lung (Ca)1.22 (1.054 to 1.414)320.0510.0301.28 (1.076 to 1.518)200.0220.252
STS1.13 (0.752 to 1.703)22<0.0010.9950.96 (0.621 to 1.492)20<0.0011.000
Skin (Ca)1.09 (0.759 to 1.572)26<0.0010.9960.91 (0.596 to 1.402)20<0.0011.000
Breast (Ca)1.14 (0.805 to 1.61)20<0.0010.8871.29 (0.893 to 1.849)17<0.0010.987
Ovarian (Ca)0.93 (0.516 to 1.681)10<0.0011.0000.93 (0.516 to 1.681)10<0.0011.000
Prostate (Ca)1.03 (0.796 to 1.327)29<0.0010.9791.16 (0.851 to 1.57)20<0.0010.998
Testis (Ca)1.61 (0.989 to 2.614)200.2700.1821.72 (0.936 to 3.157)160.5530.078
Bladder (Ca)1.24 (0.878 to 1.761)290.1770.1671.18 (0.777 to 1.793)200.1360.264
Kidney (Ca)1.17 (0.871 to 1.583)30<0.0010.7581.22 (0.844 to 1.771)20<0.0010.863
Brain and CNS (Ca)1.01 (0.751 to 1.356)30<0.0010.9890.93 (0.638 to 1.358)20<0.0011.000
Thyroid (Ca)1.19 (0.777 to 1.827)20<0.0010.9191.24 (0.780 to 1.966)17<0.0010.812
Lymphatic and haematopoietic (Ca)1.34 (1.117 to 1.597)33<0.0010.9951.42 (1.086 to 1.852)20<0.0010.921
Lymphoma (Ca)1.98 (1.451 to 2.692)260.0790.2782.01 (1.377 to 2.927)200.0770.322
Hodgkin’s disease (Ca)1.13 (0.772 to 1.642)26<0.0010.9621.15 (0.742 to 1.783)20<0.0010.886
Multiple myeloma (Ca)1.26 (0.894 to 1.769)25<0.0010.9941.24 (0.822 to 1.862)20<0.0010.989
Leukaemia (Ca)1.08 (0.805 to 1.444)30<0.0011.0001.02 (0.707 to 1.463)20<0.0011.000
Diabetes mellitus0.84 (0.402 to 1.77)3<0.0010.558
Cardiovascular disease0.91 (0.842 to 0.991)350.023<0.0010.99 (0.869 to 1.121)200.0330.003
Coronary heart disease0.99 (0.9 to 1.097)250.0180.0381.08 (0.931 to 1.244)170.0310.027
Cerebrovascular disease1.05 (0.885 to 1.246)240.0310.1980.90 (0.743 to 1.080)17<0.0010.762
Respiratory disease (non-ca)0.95 (0.781 to 1.146)330.1100.0040.91 (0.681 to 1.211)200.1360.031
Bronchitis, emphysema and asthma1.08 (0.859 to 1.351)23<0.0010.8701.06 (0.814 to 1.381)16<0.0010.799
Cirrhosis1.19 (0.742 to 1.899)70.1880.052
External causes1.02 (0.879 to 1.174)350.0650.0021.22 (0.999 to 1.484)200.0490.088
Accidents1.01 (0.873 to 1.164)31<0.0010.9641.17 (0.906 to 1.516)20<0.0010.993
Suicide0.99 (0.765 to 1.275)290.1270.0461.21 (0.882 to 1.671)200.1200.102
Homicide1.16 (0.898 to 1.505)210.1030.0651.30 (0.984 to 1.720)160.0690.171
  • Ca, cancer; STS, soft tissue sarcoma.