Independent variable | Log prevalence ratio estimate† (SE) | p Value | ||

Log-binomial | Robust Poisson | Log-binomial | Robust Poisson | |

Black defendant | 0.3152 (0.1367) | 0.5935 (0.1992) | 0.0224 | 0.0029 |

White victim | 0.1219 (0.1078) | 0.3173 (0.2061) | 0.2288 | 0.1238 |

Serious | −0.0010 (0.0174) | 0.0023 (0.0352) | 0.9305 | 0.9475 |

Culpability | 1.8062 (0.2750) | 1.9223 (0.4453) | <0.001 | <0.001 |

Culpability squared | −0.2006 (0.0308) | −0.2158 (0.0624) | <0.001 | <0.001 |

*Wald tests were used for the robust Poisson method, and likelihood ratio tests were used for the log-binomial method. The latter were obtained by fitting a model without the effect being tested, and calculating minus twice the difference in log likelihoods to get a χ

^{2}test statistic and p value. In case the log-binomial did not converge, the COPY method approximation was used.†The intercept estimate was −4.4445 for the log-binomial method and −4.9193 for the robust Poisson method. Of the 147 probability estimates, five were greater than unity for the robust Poisson method, and the largest was 1.28.