Table 3 Association of standardised leadership score with incident IHD among employees after adjustment for different risk factors at baseline*
Adjustment variables in addition to ageHazard ratio for IHD per 1 SD increase in leadership score(95% CI)
    None0.65 (0.49 to 0.87)
    Education, supervisory status, social class, income0.67 (0.49 to 0.90)
    and physical load at work
    Smoking, physical exercise0.65 (0.49 to 0.87)
    BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total0.61 (0.46 to 0.82)
    cholesterol, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides,
    fibrinogen, diabetes
    All of the above0.63 (0.46 to 0.86)
  • *Only those with a minimum of 4-year exposure and no missing data in any of the predictors were included in these models (n = 1319, 40 events).

  • Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) included unstable angina. HDL, high density lipoprotein.