Table 2 Cancer deaths in 2004 attributable to occupation, by exposure and cancer site
Cancer site
Exposure‡Reference (numbers 16–62 in the reference list)§Type of studyMFMFMFMFMFMFMF
Aromatic aminesSorahan et al (1998)17West Midlands hospital-based case-control study22†††,§§§10†††,§§§2210
ArsenicLee-Feldstein (1986)18US copper smelter cohort95219521
AsbestosDarnton et al (2006)16¶Ratio of lung cancer to mesothelioma deaths in asbestos-exposed jobs165027016502703300540
Darnton (personal communication)¶¶Proportion of mesotheliomas judged due to occupational asbestos exposure
BenzeneCollins et al (2004)19Industry cohort study2†††4†††24
Lewis et al (2000)20Industry cohort study
Bloemen (2004)21Industry cohort study
BerylliumWard et al (1992)22US industry cohort5‡‡‡2‡‡‡52
CadmiumVerougstraete et al (2003)23Review of industry studies13‡‡‡5‡‡‡135
ChromiumCole & Rodu (2005)24¶Meta-analysis56‡‡‡18‡‡‡1‡‡‡0‡‡‡5719
Rosenbaum & Stanbury (1996)25††US industry cohort
Cobalt††††Moulin et al (1998)26French industry cohort88278827
Diesel engine exhaustLipsett & Campleman (1999)27¶Meta-analysis47§§§3§§§5666061363
Coggon et al (1984)28¶Case-control death certificate study
Boffetta & Silverman (2001)29**Meta-analysis of industry cohorts¶¶¶
DioxinsKogevinas et al (1997)30IARC multi-national cohort¶¶¶1091110911
Electromagnetic fields††††Kheifets et al (1997)31Meta-analysis351351
Environmental tobacco smoke for non-smokersZhong et al. (2000)32Meta-analysis144110144110
Ethylene oxideCoggon et al (2003)33Industry cohort study0†††,‡‡‡0†††,‡‡‡00
Teta et al (1999)34Meta-analysis
FormaldehydeMannetje et al (1999)35††Pool of population-based case-control studies4***,‡‡‡2***,‡‡‡0042
Coggon et al (2003)36††UK industry cohort
Collins & Lineker (2004)19§§Meta-analysis of industry cohorts
Hairdressers and barbers (occupation)Czene et al (2003)37Swedish cohort study3§§§4§§§34
Ionising radiationBlettner et al (2003)38Multi-national occupation group cohort1111
LeadSteenland & Boffetta (2000)39Meta-analysis38‡‡‡7‡‡‡387
Leather dust§§§§Fu et al (1996)40English shoe-manufacturing workers cohort5656
Mineral oils (metalworkers)Tolbert (1997)41**Review¶¶¶243‡‡‡13‡‡‡17‡‡‡1‡‡‡20‡‡‡2‡‡‡27916
Eisen et al (2001)42‡‡US automobile industry cohort
Roush et al (1980)43††US case-control study
Mineral oils (printers)Leon et al (1994)44Industry cohorts¶¶¶1954019540
NickelSorohan & Williams (2005)45¶Clydach refinery cohort6***,‡‡‡2‡‡‡3***,‡‡‡1‡‡‡83
Seilkop & Oller (2003)46¶Review of industry studies
Grimsrud & Peto (2006)47††Clydach refinery cohort
Non-arsenical pesticidesAcquavella (1998)48Meta-analysis of industry cohorts153153
Painters (occupation)Chen & Seaton (1998)49¶Meta-analysis of cohort studies3222441727719
Bosetti et al (2005)50**Quantitative review of industry-based studies
PAHs (general)Armstrong et al (2004)51¶Meta-analysis of industry cohorts****18‡‡‡0‡‡‡60230
Unwin et al (2006)52¶Narrative review of industry cohorts¶¶¶
Boffetta et al (1997)53**
PAHs (coal tars and pitches)Partanen & Boffetta (1994)54Meta-analysis of cohort studies in asphalt workers5050
RadonNRPB (2000)55Attributable domestic death rates applied to employees time at work185185185185
SilicaKurihara & Wada (2004)56Meta-analysis7975379753
Steenland et al (2001)57Cohort pool
Solar radiationFreedman et al (2002)58US death certificate-based case-control study17†††5†††175
Steel foundry workersSorahan et al. (1994)59UK industry cohort251251
Textile dust††††Luce et al (2002)60Pool of population-/hospital-based case-control studies¶¶¶1212
Welders (occupation)††††Ambroise et al (2006)61Meta-analysis1391313913
Wood dustDemers et al (1995)62Pool of population-based case-control studies21***0***210
Established exposures only†40104531375991450753862464692701
Established plus uncertain exposures†36232581141067281650270386451162591058
  • *Totals do not always sum across rows due to rounding error.

  • †Numbers for the separate exposures do not sum to the combined exposure totals due to allowance made for overlapping exposures.

  • ‡Estimates have not been made for some IARC Group 1 and 2A carcinogens. Reasons include: relevant exposures had ceased in GB by 1950 (rubber industry/for bladder cancer); very small or unknown numbers of workers exposed (BCME and CME, αCT&BC, epichlorohydrin, haematite mining, 1,3-butadiene,ethylene oxide in men); no relative risk (RR) estimates were available (4,4′methyl bis(2-chloroaniline) and styrene-7,8-oxide for bladder cancer, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene & dibenz[a,h]anthracene for NMSC, isopropanol manufacture, strong acid process for sinonasal cancer); workers were also exposed to another dominant carcinogen (boot and shoe manufacture and repair included under benzene for leukaemia, and under exposure to aromatic amines before 1962 for bladder cancer, rubber industry exposure included under exposure to chromium, cadmium, silica and PAHs for lung cancer).

  • §Where two references are given, the first was used for a “higher” exposure risk estimate and the second for a “lower/background” exposure risk estimate, unless otherwise stated.

  • ¶Lung cancer.

  • **Bladder cancer.

  • ††Sinonasal cancer.

  • ‡‡Non-melanoma skin cancer.

  • §§Leukaemia.

  • ¶¶Mesothelioma.

  • ***Based on three exposure levels.

  • †††Based on separate exposure scenario categories.

  • ‡‡‡RR for background exposure level was set to 1, giving AF = 0.

  • §§§RRs from incidence studies used. For all other estimates RRs from mortality studies or meta-analyses combining mortality and incidence studies were used.

  • ¶¶¶Inverse variance weighted average RR estimated by study team using RRs given in the reference.

  • ****A unit relative risk estimate was used to derive exposure level-specific RRs.

  • ††††Exposure classified as IARC 2B; included in the “uncertain” group. For cobalt, estimated lung cancer deaths were based on total numbers exposed to cobalt, with or without exposure to tungsten carbide. Cobalt with tungsten carbide is classified as IARC 2A.

  • ‡‡‡‡Low exposed RR estimated by the study team as 1+(RRhigh-1)/2.

  • §§§§Boot and shoe manufacture and repair.

  • αCT&BC, α-chlorinated toluenes & benzoyl chloride; BCME, bis(chloromethyl)ether; CMF, chloromethyl methyl ether; IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer; NMSC, non-melanoma skin cancer; PAH, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; RR, relative risk.