Table 2 Association between high-strain job and cognitive functions at phases 5 and 7 (means and 95% CI)
High-strain job phases 1, 2 and 3MemoryInductive reasoning (AH4)Verbal meaning (Mill Hill)Phonemic fluencySemantic fluency
Model 1*Model 2†Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
Outcomes measured at phase 5
No exposure7.1 (7.0 to 7.2)7.1 (6.9 to 7.1)46.9 (46.4 to 47.3)46.1 (45.7 to 46.4)24.8 (24.6 to 25.0)25.5 (24.3 to 24.7)17.3 (17.1 to 17.5)17.1 (16.9 to 17.3)16.8 (16.7 to 17.0)16.6 (16.4 to 16.8)
1 exposure6.9 (6.8 to 7.1)7.0 (6.8 to 7.1)45.3 (44.6 to 45.9)45.7 (45.1 to 46.3)24.4 (24.1 to 24.7)24.6 (24.4 to 24.8)16.7 (16.5 to 17.0)16.8 (16.6 to 17.1)16.2 (15.9 to 16.4)16.3 (16.1 to 16.6)
2 exposures6.8 (6.6 to 7.1)6.8 (6.6 to 7.1)44.7 (43.7 to 45.6)45.4 (44.6 to 46.2)24.7 (24.3 to 25.1)24.9 (24.6 to 25.2)16.8 (16.4 to 17.2)17.0 (16.6 to 17.4)16.3 (16.0 to 16.7)16.6 (16.2 to 16.9)
3 exposures6.9 (6.5 to 7.2)7.0 (6.6 to 7.3)45.1 (43.6 to 46.7)45.9 (44.5 to 47.2)24.3 (23.7 to 25.0)24.7 (24.1 to 25.2)17.0 (16.3 to 17.7)17.2 (16.6 to 17.9)16.1 (15.4 to 16.7)16.3 (15.7 to 16.9)
p value for linear trend0.0030.127<0.0010.1630.0640.0730.0020.678<0.0010.203
Outcomes measured at phase 7
No exposure7.1 (7.0 to 7.2)7.0 (6.9 to 7.1)44.0 (43.5 to 44.4)42.7 (42.3 to 43.1)24.9 (24.7 to 25.0)24.3 (24.1 to 24.5)16.2 (16.1 to 16.4)15.8 (15.6 to 16.0)15.9 (15.8 to 16.1)15.5 (15.3 to 115.7)
1 exposure6.9 (6.7 to 7.0)6.9 (6.7 to 7.0)42.4 (41.8 to 43.0)42.4 (41.8 to 42.9)24.4 (24.1 to 24.6)24.4 (24.1 to 24.5)15.7 (15.5 to 16.0)15.7 (15.5 to 16.0)15.4 (15.2 to 15.6)15.4 (15.1 to 15.6)
2 exposures6.9 (6.7 to 7.2)7.0 (6.7 to 7.2)42.3 (41.3 to 43.2)42.3 (41.5 to 43.1)24.7 (24.3 to 25.1)24.6 (24.3 to 24.9)15.6 (15.3 to 15.9)15.6 (15.3 to 16.0)15.5 (15.1 to 15.8)15.5 (15.2 to 15.7)
3 exposures6.8 (6.4 to 7.2)6.8 (6.5 to 7.2)43.2 (41.6 to 44.8)43.3 (42.0 to 44.7)24.3 (23.6 to 24.9)24.3 (23.7 to 24.9)15.4 (14.7 to 16.1)15.5 (14.9 to 16.1)15.2 (14.7 to 15.8)15.3 (14.8 to 115.8)
p value for linear trend0.0060.395<0.0010.8060.0240.313<0.0010.176<0.0010.277
  • *Model 1 is adjusted for age and sex (at phase 5).

  • †Model 2 is adjusted for age, sex and employment grade (at phase 5).

  • AH4, Alice Heim intelligence test.