Table 4 Associations between occupational group and perennial rhinitis for subjects with neither symptoms of allergic rhinitis nor asthma at baseline
n (%)Odds ratio (95% CI)
Total* (n = 4853)Men (n = 2413)Women (n = 2440)
During follow-up always employed as:
Office worker (ref)2762 (56.9)111
During follow-up ever employed as:†
Cleaners and caretakers291 (6.0)1.43 (0.99 to 2.06)0.99 (0.49 to 2.02)1.70 (1.09 to 2.64)
Hairdressers, barber, beautician and related35 (0.7)0.57 (0.13 to 2.42)NA0.70 (0.16 to 3.08)
Nurses190 (3.9)1.08 (0.67 to 1.73)0.96 (0.28 to 3.30)1.14 (0.68 to 1.92)
Other medical and pharmacy professions248 (5.1)1.05 (0.69 to 1.61)1.46 (0.62 to 3.47)0.95 (0.58 to 1.55)
Agriculture and forestry workers108 (2.2)0.88 (0.47 to 1.65)0.97 (0.47 to 2.04)0.77 (0.22 to 2.66)
Wood workers69 (1.4)1.12 (0.55 to 2.27)1.10 (0.52 to 2.31)11.2 (0.65 to 192)
Bakery workers28 (0.6)1.91 (0.73 to 5.02)3.46 (1.02 to 11.8)0.89 (0.18 to 4.59)
Food and tobacco processors112 (2.2)0.66 (0.32 to 1.35)0.28 (0.07 to 1.19)1.14 (0.48 to 2.69)
Metal making and treating48 (1.0)0.48 (0.14 to 1.63)0.55 (0.16 to 1.87)NA
Other metal workers200 (4.1)0.76 (0.45 to 1.27)0.87 (0.50 to 1.51)0.54 (0.07 to 4.47)
Electrical processors126 (2.6)0.99 (0.55 to 1.79)1.11 (0.61 to 2.03)NA
Textile, leather and fur50 (1.0)0.50 (0.15 to 1.65)0.70 (0.09 to 5.59)0.41 (0.09 to 1.79)
Printing workers41 (0.8)1.51 (0.61 to 3.74)1.83 (0.67 to 5.01)0.96 (0.10 to 9.11)
Construction and mining183 (3.8)0.76 (0.44 to 1.30)0.86 (0.49 to 1.51)NA
Drivers169 (3.5)0.84 (0.50 to 1.42)0.91 (0.52 to 1.56)1.28 (0.14 to 11.7)
Others‡376 (7.7)
  • NA, not applicable due to small numbers.

  • Odds ratio with 95% CI adjusted for country, age at first survey, smoking, parental allergies and level of education.

  • *OR (95% CI) additionally adjusted for gender.

  • †Subjects might have held more than one job, therefore, numbers do not add up to 100%.

  • ‡Others: occupational groups with fewer than 30 subjects (chemical technicians, plastic and rubber workers, chemical processors, welders and flame cutters, spray painters, paper, glass and ceramic workers) and groups with mixed exposures (remainder transport and storage, remainder blue collar, not classifiable). Odds ratios not calculated due to mixture of different exposures.