Table 2 Factors associated with long-term sick leave
StudyOR/RR (95% CI)
Individual factors
    Poor general health (SF36)Van der Giezen,OR 1.6 (1.3 to 1.8)
200029
    Not being the family’s mainVan der Giezen,OR 2* (1.3 to 3.4)
    wage earner200029
    Older age (>50 years old)Gjesdal, 200427RR 7.5 (5.3 to 10.6) (men)
RR 6.1 (4.6 to 8.1) (women)
    Older age (>55 years old)Heijbel, 200625OR 2.2* (1.3 to 3.7)
    Low incomeGjesdal, 200427RR 1.6 (1 to 2.45) (men)
RR 2.6 (1.4 to 4.6) (women)
    Unemployment statusGjesdal, 200427RR 1.3 (1 to 1.7) (women)
    1–12 months
    Mental health disordersGjesdal, 200427RR 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) (men)
    History of sickness absenceGjesdal, 200427RR 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) (men)
    >100 daysRR 1.6 (1.2 to 2.1) (women)
    Duration of sick leave >1 yearHeijbel, 200625OR 2.7* (1.8 to 4.1)
    Assessed to be in need ofGjesdal, 200427RR 4.3 (3.1 to 6.0) (men)
    comprehensive rehabilitationRR 2.3 (1.7 to 3.2) (women)
    Own prediction of non-Heijbel, 200625OR 16.0* (6.9 to 37.3)
    return to work
    Having more pain†Heijbel, 200625OR 5.5* (2.7 to 11.1)
    Having worse function†Heijbel, 200625OR 2.7* (1.4 to 5.2)
Work-related factors
    Having less job satisfactionVan der Giezen,1.2 (1.1 to 1.3)
200029
    Lack of skill discretionJanssen, 2003281.4 (1.0 to 1.7)
    Non-profit organisationSchroer, 2005262.2 (1.2 to 4.2)
    Perception of not beingHeijbel, 2006251.9 (1.2 to 3)
    welcomed back to work
  • *Crude (not-adjusted) odds ratios for individual factors associated with long-term sick leave; †compared to persons in the quartile with the least pain/least impairment of function.