Table 3 Summary of statistically significant positive associations between cardiovascular mortality, by effect modifier and single-lag days for pollutants‡
MaleFemaleWhiteHispanicHigh school graduateNon-high school graduate
PM2.53†2†, 3†3*1†, 30†, 3
Elemental carbon2†2*3*2†2*3
Organic carbon32†3
Nitrates3*3*1†, 3†0†, 3*
Sulphates3†0*3*10†, 2
Copper1†, 3*1
Iron2†2†, 3*2†2*3
Potassium2*2†2†11†, 2*
Sulphur3*02†0*3*0†, 2
Zinc3†0†, 23†3†3†
  • PM, particulate matter.

  • *p<0.10 and †p<0.05 for difference from null effect.

  • ‡Numbers in the table indicate which lags (of 0 to 3 days) were statistically significant. Bold indicates that the lag also produced a significantly greater effect estimate (p<0.10) in this group versus the corresponding demographic subgroup. The regression model includes time (4 df/year), 1-day lags of temperature and humidity, day of week and pollutant.