Table 1 Associations between one year of exposure to biomechanical risk factors and various types of low back pain (LBP) based on logistic models
LBP for at least 1 dayLBP for more than 30 daysLBP radiating to the legLBP radiating below the knee
OR† (95% CI)p ValueOR‡ (95% CI)p ValueOR§ (95% CI)p ValueOR¶ (95% CI)p Value
Driving a car >2 h/day1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)0.02811.02 (1.01 to 1.03)0.0013
Bending/twisting1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)0.00071.04 (1.03 to 1.05)<0.0001
Pushing/pulling/carrying heavy loads1.03 (1.02 to 1.05)<0.0001
Driving a car >2 h/day1.06 (1.01 to 1.12)0.0319
Bending/twisting1.04 (1.01 to 1.06)0.00941.03 (1.01 to 1.06)0.0073
Pushing/pulling/carrying heavy loads1.06 (1.00 to 1.14)0.0664
  • †Adjusted for age, smoking, headache, work demand for men age, psychosomatic problems, work demand for women.

  • ‡Adjusted for age, headache, social support at work for men age, psychosomatic problems for women.

  • §Adjusted for age, BMI, psychosomatic problems, social support at work for men age, social support at work for women.

  • ¶Adjusted for age, BMI, headache for men age for women.

  • –, Variable not in the model because not associated with the type of LBP studied (p⩾0.15) when exposure to other biomechanical strains and confounders were taken into account.