Table 1 Examples of associations between work organisation, working conditions and job-level hazards (chemical, biological, safety, ergonomic, psychosocial)
Organisational constructWorking conditions and job-level hazards
Workplace governance (ownership, outsourcing)Labour standards, oversight and enforcement of OSH standards, internal resources for training, hazard identification and control, management commitment to workforce health and well-being
Employment relationsCasual vs contractual relations, training and awareness of job hazards and hazard control strategies, job (in)security, disincentives to report hazards and/or morbidity, level of accommodation for injured workers
Pay structureFixed pay vs incentive or “piece work” accelerated work pace, incentives for bypassing hazard control measures, reduced formal and/or informal work breaks and opportunities for recovery
Process controlBenchmarking of quality and productivity (workload), formalisation of work methods (exposure variance, autonomy), accountability (work pace, vigilance), authority to halt hazardous processes
Process technologyType of materials used/recycled, proximity to hazards, level and adaptability of mechanisation (for example, external work pace, ability to step away from point exposure sources)
Lean production techniquesReduction of non-value added functions such as work-in-process inventory, material handling, walking, searching, machine cycle wait time and indirect labour. Possible effects on task frequency and work pace, time available for safe practices, opportunities for physiological recovery from exposure, overload of physiological clearance processes
Maintenance and housekeepingHazard control and effectiveness (for example, replacement of filters in local exhaust ventilation, lubricate movable machine guards, uncluttered and dry walkways, unimpeded egress)
Staffing levels (numerical flexibility)Availability of relief staff: possible effects on individual workload, time available for safe work practices, opportunities for physiologic recovery
Job rotationIncreased task variety, more exposure variability, possibly reduced hazard awareness, may hamper use of personal protective equipment, may increase recovery opportunities
Social supports and social relations“Buddy system” (peer safety): oversight, protection and transfer of knowledge about job hazards, workload (re)distibution, self-regulated work groups (work pace, possible peer pressure)
Work schedulesDuration and temporal patterning of all workplace exposures: possible effects on overload of physiological clearance processes, fatigue, recovery opportunities, work/family balance.