Table 2

 Association between prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and exposure to different chemicals over entire working time, adjusted for age

Chemicals and exposureControls, n (%)Prostate cancerBPH
Cases, n (%)p Value*Age adjusted OR (95% CI)Cases, n (%)p Value*Age adjusted OR (95% CI)
BPH, benign prostatic hyperplasia; PAH, polyaromatic hydrocarbon.
*p Values from χ2 tests
†Patients probably exposed to the substances at a medium or high level for more than half their working time for a total of >5 years.
‡Exposed to the substance, but not at a substantial level.
Metals
Toxic metals
    Not exposed291 (62.4)354 (58.7)0.241.00 (reference)219 (55.4)0.061.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial†161 (34.5)236 (39.1)1.25 (0.96 to 1.61)167 (42.3)1.39 (1.10 to 1.84)
    Substantial‡14 (3)13 (2.2)0.79 (0.36 to 1.72)9 (2.3)0.81 (0.34 to 1.93)
Other metals
    Not exposed255 (54.7)312 (51.7)0.581.00 (reference)217 (54.9)0.401.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial180 (38.6)252 (41.8)1.16 (0.89 to 1.49)160 (40.5)1.05 (0.79 to 1.39)
    Substantial31 (6.7)39 (6.5)1.10 (0.66 to 1.82)18 (4.6)0.66 (0.36 to 1.22)
Inorganic arsenic
    Not exposed403 (86.5)523 (86.9)0.851.00 (reference)339 (86)0.851.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial63 (13.5)79 (13.1)1.10 (0.73 to 1.50)55 (14)1.00 (0.67 to 1.48)
Any metals
    Not exposed187 (40.1)230 (38.1)0.681.00 (reference)149 (37.7)0.371.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial245 (52.6)329 (54.6)1.13 (0.86 to 1.48)224 (56.7)1.15 (0.86 to 1.53)
    Substantial34 (7.3)44 (7.3)1.12 (0.79 to 1.60)22 (5.6)0.79 (0.44 to 1.42)
Wood dust
    Not exposed299 (64.2)383 (63.3)0.801.00 (reference)249 (63.0)0.941.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial156 (33.5)205 (34)1.06 (0.82 to 1.38)136 (34.4)1.05 (0.79 to 1.40)
    Substantial11 (2.4)16 (2.7)1.17 (0.53 to 2.58)10 (2.5)1.11 (0.46 to 2.67)
Pesticides
Organophosphate
    Not exposed428 (91.8)567 (94)0.161.00 (reference)371 (93.9)0.241.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial38 (8.2)36 (6)0.69 (0.43 to 1.12)24 (6.1)0.73 (0.43 to 1.24)
Organochlorines
    Not exposed454 (97.4)592 (98.2)0.401.00 (reference)387 (98)0.591.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial12 (2.6)11 (1.8)0.76 (0.33 to 1.75)8 (2)0.77 (0.31 to 1.91)
Phenoxy herbicides
    Not exposed435 (93.3)563 (93.4)0.991.00 (reference)376 (95.2)0.251.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial31 (6.7)40 (6.6)1.00 (0.61 to 1.63)19 (4.8)0.72 (0.40 to 1.29)
Other herbicides
    Not exposed434 (93.1)558 (92.5)0.711.00 (reference)374 (94.7)0.351.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial32 (6.9)45 (7.5)1.03(0.62 to 1.66)21 (5.3)0.76 (0.43 to 1.34)
Other pesticides
    Not exposed448 (96.1)587 (97.3)0.261.00 (reference)382 (96.7)0.651.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial18 (3.9)16 (2.7)0.69 (0.34 to 1.37)13 (3.3)0.81 (0.39 to 1.69)
Any pesticides
    Not exposed414 (88.8)535 (88.7)0.951.00 (reference)359 (90.9)0.321.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial52 (11.2)68 (11.3)1.02 (0.69 to 1.50)36 (9.1)0.79 (0.50 to 1.23)
Fertilisers
Synthetic
    Not exposed358 (77)471 (78.1)0.661.00 (reference)306 (77.7)0.811.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial107 (23)132 (21.9)0.99 (0.74 to 1.32)88 (22.3)0.96 (0.69 to 1.32)
Natural
    Not exposed446 (95.7)587 (97.3)0.141.00 (reference)384 (97.2)0.241.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial20 (4.3)16 (2.7)0.66 (0.34 to 1.30)11 (2.8)0.66 (0.31 to 1.40)
Any fertilisers
    Not exposed351 (75.5)467 (77.4)0.451.00 (reference)304 (77.2)0.571.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial114 (24.5)136 (22.6)0.95 (0.71 to 1.26)90 (22.8)1.39 (0.70 to 2.76)
Oils
Mineral oils
    Not exposed229 (49.1)297 (49.3)0.581.00 (reference)202 (51.1)0.321.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial181 (38.8)245 (40.6)1.11 (0.86 to 1.45)158 (40)0.96 (0.72 to 1.29)
    Substantial56 (12)61 (10.1)0.89 (0.59 to 1.33)35 (8.9)0.68 (0.43 to 1.08)
Other oils
    Not exposed420 (90.1)532 (88.2)0.211.00 (reference)361 (91.4)0.121.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial27 (5.8)51 (8.5)1.54 (0.95 to 2.51)27 (6.8)1.13 (0.65 to 1.98)
    Substantial19 (4.1)20 (3.3)0.87 (0.46 to 1.67)7 (1.8)0.42 (0.17 to 1.01)
Any oils
    Not exposed225 (48.3)285 (47.3)0.441.00 (reference)197 (49.9)0.081.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial169 (36.3)238 (39.5)1.19 (0.91 to 1.56)157 (39.7)1.04 (0.77 to 1.39)
    Substantial72 (15.5)80 (13.3)0.93 (0.64 to 1.35)41 (10.4)0.62 (0.40 to 1.00)
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
Diesel fumes
    Not exposed217 (46.6)294 (48.8)0.701.00 (reference)196 (49.6)0.671.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial213 (45.7)260 (43.1)0.92 (0.71 to 1.19)170 (43.0)0.88 (0.66 to 1.16)
    Substantial36 (7.7)49 (8.1)1.07 (0.67 to 1.72)29 (7.3)0.89 (0.53 to 1.51)
PAH
    Not exposed233 (50)311 (51.6)0.561.00 (reference)182 (46.1)0.131.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial210 (45.1)270 (44.8)1.01 (0.78 to 1.30)201 (50.9)1.20 (0.91 to 1.58)
    Substantial23 (4.9)22 (3.6)0.79 (0.43 to 1.46)12 (3)0.66 (0.32 to 1.37)
Any PAH
    Not exposed183 (39.3)230 (38.1)0.741.00 (reference)144 (36.5)0.171.00 (reference)
    Non-substantial227 (48.7)307 (50.9)1.11 (0.86 to 1.45)215 (54.4)1.18 (0.88 to 1.57)
    Substantial56 (12)66 (10.9)1.02 (0.67 to 1. 53)36 (9.1)0.81 (0.50, 1.30)