Table 1

 Description of the study population and prevalence of allergic rhinitis among grape farmers and controls

Controls non-farmers, n = 100Grape farmers no use of pesticides, n = 42Grape farmers current use of pesticides, n = 78p Value*
AR, allergic rhinitis.
2 test was used for categorical variables; analysis of variance was used for continuous variables.
†The reference category included subjects who had no AR according to the questionnaire (less than 2 nasal symptoms apart from a cold during the last 12 months).
‡OR with 95% CI derived from logistic regression models by comparison with the control subjects after adjusting for age, sex and smoking status.
§Atopy: positive for at least one skin prick test or enzyme immunoassay test. The reference category included subjects who had no AR according to the questionnaire, or did not have a positive allergy test.
Age in years, mean (SD)34.9 (7.4)43.3 (11.7)46.9 (12.2)<0.01
Sex
Male, n (%)29 (29)7 (17)36 (46)<0.01
Female, n (%)71 (71)35 (83)42 (54)
Smoking<0.001
Non-smokers, n (%)32 (32)31 (74)40 (51)
Ex-smokers, n (%)9 (9)3 (7)12 (15)
Current smokers, n (%)59 (59)8 (19)26 (34)
AR questionnaire†, n (%)27 (27)15 (36)40 (51)
OR (95% CI)‡11.4 (0.6 to 3.3)3.0 (1.4 to 6.2)<0.01
AR with atopy§, n (%)26 (26)15 (36)34 (44)<0.01
OR (95% CI)‡11.3 (0.5 to 3.2)3.5 (1.5 to 8.5)