Table 2

 Factors assessed at baseline related to sick leave due to neck or back pain at the 18-month follow-up

Risk factors*nCases†Adjusted OR
Results from multivariate logistic regressions per variable set.
*In all the multivariate analyses, sex, age, neck and back pain during the past year were included together with all variables within each variable set with p⩽0.10 from univariate analyses.
†The number of participants reporting sick leave due to neck or back pain.
‡No ORs could be computed because no cases were available in this category.
§Higher score means more of the characteristics described. Range 1–5.
Background/demographic factors*
    Employment grade
        White-collar404160.34 (0.20 to 0.58)
Lifestyle factors*
    No factors with p<0.05
Health-related and pain-related characteristics*
    Sick leave during the previous year (all causes except neck or back pain)
        No days673421.00
        1–7 days555631.85 (1.22 to 2.80)
        8–99 days267402.18 (1.35 to 3.53)
        100–365 days160–‡
    Back pain during the previous year
        Yes, one time219252.00 (1.14 to 3.50)
        Yes, several times570811.95 (1.24 to 3.06)
    Perceived prognosis of own working ability in 2 years’ time
        Almost certain13971191.00
        Not certain about it101242.16 (1.24 to 3.78)
        Probably not1320.67 (0.12 to 3.74)
Physical work characteristics*
    Heavy lifting
        Almost never839581.00
        1–10 times per day540561.20 (0.78 to 1.89)
        >10 times per day194342.03 (1.20 to 3.43)
    Working with vibrating tools
        Almost never1122811.00
        5–30 min per day245321.62 (0.99 to 2.64)
        31–60 min per day73112.16 (1.05 to 4.46)
        >60 min per day133242.02 (1.15 to 3.55)
Psychosocial work characteristics*
    Control of work pacing§
        Lowest quartile (1) 1.00–2.34346531.00
        (2) 2.35–3.00357360.70 (0.44 to 1.12)
        (3) 3.01–3.75409340.58 (0.36 to 0.94)
        (4) 3.76–5.00446260.44 (0.26 to 0.76)