Table 3 Analysis of gene-environment interactions (all cases versus controls) after adjustment*
Genetic polymorphismsCandidate genotypeExposure†Multiplicative interactionp Value
Low vs highOdds ratio (95% CI)
CYP2D6*4*4Solvents1.65 (0.37 to 7.36)0.51
CYP1B1*3*3Solvents1.15 (0.49 to 2.69)0.75
GSTM1NullSolvents1.76 (0.91 to 3.41)0.09
GSTT1NullSolvents0.81 (0.35 to 1.89)0.63
GSTM3AB/BBSolvents0.93 (0.45 to 1.91)0.84
GSTP1 haplotypeAB, AC, AD, BB, BC,CCSolvents1.53 (0.79 to 2.96)0.21
NQO1*1*2/*2*2Solvents0.54 (0.27 to 1.11)0.09
SOD2 Val9AlaAVSolvents1.74 (0.72 to 4.23)0.46**
VVSolvents1.60 (0.60 to 4.24)
NAT2FS/SSSolvents2.31 (0.61 to 8.77)0.22
CYP2D6*4*4Pesticides1.61 (0.40 to 6.46)0.50
PON1 L55MLM/LLPesticides4.43 (0.88 to 22.31)0.07
PON1 Q192RQR/RRPesticides1.56 (0.70 to 3.44)0.27
GSTM1NullPesticides0.65 (0.29 to 1.43)0.28
GSTT1NullPesticides1.29 (0.42 to 3.94)0.65
GSTM3AB/BBPesticides1.41 (0.60 to 3.30)0.43
GSTP1 haplotypeAC/AD/BC/CCPesticides2.47 (0.63 to 9.73)0.20
NQO1*1*2/*2*2Pesticides1.20 (0.54 to 2.66)0.66
CYP1B1*3*3Pesticides0.57 (0.18 to 1.91)0.37
NAT2FS/SSPesticides1.70 (0.48 to 6.07)0.42
GSTM1NullIron0.94 (0.48 to 1.83)0.85
CYP1B1*3*3Iron1.53 (0.61 to 3.83)0.37
SOD2 Val9AlaAVIron0.67 (0.29 to 1.55)0.64**
VVIron0.75 (0.31 to 1.84)
NAT2FS/SSIron1.45 (0.39 to 5.40)0.58
SOD2 Val9AlaAVCopper0.78 (0.30 to 2.04)0.66**
VVCopper1.20 (0.40 to 3.55)
CYP2D6*4*4Manganese1.27 (0.28 to 5.80)0.76
NQO1*1*2/*2*2Manganese1.09 (0.53 to 2.22)0.82
CYP1B1*3*3Manganese1.75 (0.68 to 4.52)0.25
SOD2 Val9AlaAVManganese0.75 (0.31 to 1.82)0.60**
VVManganese1.13 (0.44 to 2.92).
  • *Logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, country, ever used tobacco containing product, ever knocked unconscious and first degree family history of Parkinson’s disease. MAO-A and MAO-B are not adjusted for sex but are presented for males and females separately.

  • **For three category factors p value for trend derived from logistic regression coding genetic factors as 0, 1 and 2 variable.

  • †Cut-offs for low/high exposure: solvents/iron/manganese: 20% of an OEL (AAI); pesticides/copper: 2% of an OEL (AAI).