Table 2

‚ÄÉCategorisation of solvent neurobehavioural effects20

Type 1Symptoms onlySymptoms include impaired memory, poor concentration, fatigue, and reduced motivation. Where exposure ceases these non-specific symptoms will resolve.
Type 2ASustained personality or mood changeAltered personality with lowered mood, reduced motivation, poor impulse control, anxiety, and irritability.
Type 2BImpairment in intellectual functionNeuropsychological testing shows cognitive deficits affecting attention/concentration, visuospatial skills, and verbal memory. There may be minor neurological signs. If exposure ceases some recovery is likely but full recovery may not occur.
Type 3DementiaCognitive impairment is often accompanied by neurological deficits. Nerve conduction studies, electromyography, or neuroradiology (CT or MRI scanning) may identify abnormalities. Deficits do not usually worsen if withdrawn from further exposure.