Table 1

 Details of component studies included in analyses

Study10 cities, RussiaLinz, AustriaScarpol, Switzerland24 schools, NetherlandsSidria, Italy
*For the 3 year Austria study: mean NO2 and range, across areas, of area-level means of three annual measures.
Not all studies measured all pollutants.
NA, not applicable.
Children, n55594155278320659393
Main age range8–126–86–127–126–10
Description of study areas
13 areas in 10 towns of differing size (the largest Ekaterinburg) and industrialisationSchools assigned to 8 monitors in the city of Linz10 communities ranging from major cities (Bern, Geneva, Zürich) to small towns24 schools located within 400 m of freeways, in 19 towns in mid/west Netherlands46 schools, in 28 areas within 1 km of a monitor in 22 towns, from major cities (eg Rome, Turin) to small towns.
Main questionnaire period
Apr–May 99Jan 96–Dec 98Oct 92–Mar 93Apr 97–Jul 98Oct 94–Mar 95
Range of response rates across study areas (%)
Time period of exposure data
Nov 98–Nov 99Continuous data from 96–981992April 97–May 981 Oct 93–30 Sept 94
Site of monitoring stations
Mean NO2 exposure (min-max) μg/m3
19.47 (12.45–34.71)25.91 (20.25–31.25)*31.60 (16.00–50.00)34.81 (26.79–44.38)52.04 (14.00–93.00)
Mean PM10 exposure (min–max) μg/m3
24.46 (20.47–28.40)32.14 (25.00–37.43)*22.30 (10.00–33.00)34.15 (30.28–38.86)NA
Mean SO2 exposure (min–max) μg/m3
26.27 (6.68–64.93)7.31 (4.98–10.88)10.56 (2.00–23.00)NA13.00 (2.00–32.00)