Table 3

 Characteristics and selected results of studies examining occupational kneeling and prevalence of knee injury (males only)

Study periodPopulationExposureOutcome*Prevalence
*K&L refers to Kellgren and Lawrence criteria.
Strong evidence
Lawrence & Aitken-Swan401945–49Case control (UK). Cases: miners (n = 1742). Controls: non-miners from engineering yard, offices, mining families and the local population (n = 1931)Miners v non-minersRheumatic pain in the kneeMiners4.9%
Atkins141953Cohort (UK). Mine employees with damage to a knee cartilageEmployment in mineMeniscus damageKneeling10.4%
Fall of coal20.0%
Moderate evidence
Kellgren & Lawrence41Not specifiedCase control (UK). Cases: miners (n = 84). Controls: manual (n = 45) and office workers (n = 42)Miners v manual v office workersRadiograph assessed on five point scale of severityMiners6.0%
Jensen et al47Not specifiedCase control (Denmark). Cases: floorlayers (n = 50). Controls: carpenters (n = 51) and compositors (n = 49)Floorlayers v carpenters v compositorsK&L⩾2Floorlayers <50 years0%
⩾50 years34.0%
Carpenters <50 years7.0%
⩾50 years9.0%
Compositors <50 years5.0%
⩾50 years9.0%
Weak evidence
Lawrence42Not specifiedCase-control (UK). Cases: miners (n = 221). Controls: dockers (n = 54) and light manual/office staff (n = 87)Miners v dockers v light manual/office workers with definite radiographic changesRadiograph assessed on five point scale of severityMiners24.8%
Light manual/office workers9.2%
Lindberg & Montgomery43Not specifiedCase control (Sweden). Cases: shipyard workers (n = 332). Controls: teachers/office staff (n = 352) and population controls (n = 438)Shipyard workers v teachers/office staff v population controls (occupation unknown)Ahlback (where available)Shipyard workers3.9%
Teachers/office staff1.4%
Population controls1.6%