Table 5

Mean levels and univariate regression coefficients of participant characteristics at exams 1 and IV by decline in hand-grip strength

Levels of decline in hand-grip strength (in kg)Coeff/SEp for trend*
−12–4 (n = 684)5–8 (n = 958)9–13 (n = 1142)⩾14 (n = 735)
* p for trend obtained from linear regression models (unadjusted).
†Covariates assessed at exam IV.
n changes slightly for each variable.
Coeff, parameter estimate from linear regression models; SE, standard error (note: the regression coefficients were unadjusted).
Age (years)51.3 (3.9)52.3 (4.6)53.0 (4.8)53.6 (5.1)0.209/0.021<0.001
Physical activity32.7 (4.2)32.9 (4.5)32.8 (4.8)33.1 (5.0)0.004/0.0020.074
Coffee consumption (4 oz cups)3.3 (3.0)3.5 (3.3)3.5 (3.4)3.3 (3.1)0.0033/0.0300.915
Glucose (mg/dl)146.9 (41.6)148.0 (46.1)152.6 (49.1)156.8 (52.2)0.010/0.002<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.4 (2.8)23.7 (2.8)24.0 (2.8)24.4 (2.9)0.257/0.034<0.001
Alcohol intake (g/month)325.7 (553.9)338.3 (601.0)328.4 (567.5)373.7 (696.2)0.0002/0.0010.346
Smoking (pack years)20.2 (21.7)22.0 (23.1)21.5 (23.1)21.7 (23.6)0.0063/0.0040.141
CASI score†86.4 (8.8)86.0 (8.9)83.7 (12.3)77.5 (21.2)−0.117/0.007<0.001
Education† (years)10.7 (3.2)10.6 (3.1)10.5 (3.2)10.3 (3.2)−0.082/0.0310.008
Haemoglobin† (g/dl)15.2 (1.2)15.0 (1.3)14.8 (1.4)14.4 (1.7)−0.847/0.068<0.001